• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


From as early as 3000 BC Egyptian Pharaohs referred to northern Ethiopia as the Land of Punt, rich in precious resources including gold, myrrh and ivory. The region was in contact with southern Arabia by around 2000 BC, with settlers bringing Semitic languages and stone-building techniques. Early in the 1st century AD a prosperous and advanced civilization arose in the northern highlands, centred on Aksum. Christianity reached Aksum in the 4th century AD when King Ezana was converted by Frumentius of Tyre. At its height in the 6th century AD the Aksumite empire controlled much of the Red Sea coast and traded with the Mediterranean powers, as well as Persia and India.


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Further Reading

  1. Araia, G., Ethiopia: the Political Economy of Transition. 1995Google Scholar
  2. Bigsten, Arne, Shimeles, Adebe and Kebede, Bereket, (eds.) Poverty, Income Distribution and Labour Markets in Ethiopia. 2005Google Scholar
  3. Crummey, Donald, Land and Society in the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: From the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Century. 2000Google Scholar
  4. Henze, Paul B., Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. 2000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Marcus, H. G., A History of Ethiopia. 1994Google Scholar
  6. Negash, Tekeste and Tronvoll, Kjetil, Brothers at War: Making Sense of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War. 2001Google Scholar
  7. Pankhurst, Richard, The Ethiopians. 1999Google Scholar
  8. Woodward, Peter, The Horn of Africa: Politics and International Relations. 2002Google Scholar
  9. National Statistical Office: Central Statistical Office, Addis Ababa.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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