In 1532 the Spaniards founded a colony in Ecuador, then called Quito. In 1821 a revolt led to the defeat of the Spaniards at Pichincha and thus independence from Spain. On 13 March 1830, Quito became the Republic of Ecuador. Political instability was endemic. From the mid-1930s, President José Maria Velasco Ibarra was deposed by military coups from four of his five presidencies.
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- Seiverston-Scher, M., Ethnopolitics in Ecuador: Indigenous Rights and the Strengthening of Democracy. 2001Google Scholar
- National Statistical Office: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos (INEC), Juan Larrea N15–36 y José Riofrío, Quito.Google Scholar
- Website (Spanish only): http://www.ecuadorencifras.com/cifras-inec/main.html