Records from Chinese and Arab seafarers dating back 1,400 years mention settlements on the northwest coast of Borneo that may have been forerunners to those in modern Brunei. From the early ninth century Vijayapura, which ancient Chinese texts refer to as a highly developed port, came under the control of the Srivjaya Empire (centred on Palumbang on the island of Sumatra). Trade with China blossomed from the late 10th century, with Song dynasty merchants seeking camphor from the hinterland they knew as Po-ni. By the 14th century Po-ni was under the influence of both the Javanese Majapahit Empire and Ming Dynasty Chinese traders.
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