Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (Plurinational State of Bolivia)
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire until conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century. Independence was won and the Republic of Bolivia was proclaimed on 6 Aug. 1825. During the first century and a half of its independence, Bolivia had frequent changes of government. Many of these were as a result of coups of which there have been some 190 in total. The most recent was in 1980. In the 1960s the Argentinian revolutionary and former minister of the Cuban government, Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara, was killed in Bolivia while fighting with a left-wing guerrilla group. In 1971 Bolivia was governed briefly by the revolutionary Popular Assembly. Repression under Gen. Hugo Banzer took a heavy toll on the left-wing parties. Banzer was followed by a succession of military-led governments until civilian rule was restored in Oct. 1982 when Dr Siles Zuazo became president. He introduced economic reforms embracing free markets and open trade which succeeded in restoring stability but also widened the gap between rich and poor. Amid growing discontent, in Dec. 2005 Evo Morales Ayma was elected as the country’s first indigenous president.


Cuban Government Coca Cultivation Armed Helicopter Progress Plan Road Accident Fatality 
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Further Reading

  1. Jemio, Luis Carlos, Debt, Crisis and Reform in Bolivia: Biting the Bullet. 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Klein, Herbert S., A Concise History of Bolivia. 2003Google Scholar
  3. Morales, Waltraud Q., Bolivia. 2004Google Scholar
  4. Muñoz-Pogossian, Betilde, Electoral Rules and the Transformation of Bolivian Politics: The Rise of Evo Morales. 2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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