Enlarging Eastward: NATO, the European Union and Political Conditionality
Kosovo is the defining event of NATO’s fiftieth anniversary. Whether its longer-term effects on the alliance be for good or ill, the Balkan crisis has imposed itself, like an uninvited guest, on what was expected to be a celebration of NATO’s successful adaptation to the new European security environment. At the Washington summit in April Kosovo overshadowed three otherwise momentous if less dramatic achievements: the alliance has acquired a renovated military structure, a revised strategic concept and three new members. Of these developments the last seemed the least likely until as recently as five years ago. The end of the Cold War, after all, had raised immediate questions about the alliance’s continuing role and relevance, setting in motion a decade’s worth of doctrinal and structural reforms. Enlargement, by contrast, was relatively slow to crystallise as an issue. Since 1994, however, it has come to dominate not only alliance diplomacy but whatever domestic debate NATO’s members have been able to arouse on European security issues. While temporarily eclipsing the enlargement issue, Kosovo has also invested it with new meaning.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Sean Kay, NATO and the Future of European Security (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1996) pp. 65–7.Google Scholar
- 3.Alan Mayhew, Recreating Europe: The European Union’s Policy Towards Central and Eastern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 22–3.Google Scholar
- 4.On NATO in the early 1990s see Jan W. Honig, NATO: An Institution under Threat? (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991); Alexander Moens and David Anstis (eds.): Disconcerted Europe: The Search for a New Security Architecture (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1994); Victor Papacosma and Mary Ann Heiss, NATO in the Post-Cold War Era: Does it Have a Future? (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995).Google Scholar
- 8.For useful analyses of the British and German positions, see Anthony Forster, ‘Britain, NATO and European Union Enlargement: Reluctance, Denial, and Confusion?’, and Peter Schmidt, ‘Germany’s Stance on NATO-European Union Policy Directions: Squaring Circles’, in S. Victor Papacosma and Pierre-Henri Laurent (eds.): NATO and the European Union: Confronting the Challenges of European Security and Enlargement (Kent, OH: Lyman L. Lemnitzer Center for NATO and European Union Studies, 1999), pp. 96–110 and 111–7.Google Scholar
- 18.Loukas Tsoukalis, The European Community and its Mediterranean Enlargement (London: Allen and Unwin, 1981).Google Scholar