NATO Enlargement: Who Gains? Who Loses?

  • Sean Kay


As the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) celebrates its fiftieth anniversary, NATO enlargement continues to be a divisive analytical issue. This paper seeks to promote discussion as to who gains, and who loses, from the NATO enlargement process. To assess the implications of NATO enlargement, I look at four specific cases: the United States, Western Europe, the three new members, and Russia. My central conclusion is that each of the four groups emerged with real or perceived gains from NATO enlargement. However, the gains may not be what was initially expected and the long-term implications for NATO and the future of European security are cause for serious concern.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 3.
    For further discussion, see Michael E. Brown, et al (eds.), America’s Strategic Choices (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997), especially chapters by Barry Posen and Andrew Ross, and Michael Mastanduno. Also see comments on internal containment of Germany by Zbigniew Brzezinski in Andrej Sylinski, ‘Brzezinski: Enlarged NATO Contains Germany’s Power in Europe.’ Associated Press, 7 December 1997.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    For detailed discussion see Theodore Couloumbis, The United States, Greece, and Turkey: The Troubled Triangle (New York: Praeger, 1983) and S. Victor Papacosma, ‘Greece and NATO,’ in NATO and the Mediterranean, ed. by Lawrence S. Kaplan, Robert W. Clawson, and Raimondo Luraghi (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1985).Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    See Sean Kay, ‘The New NATO and the Enlargement Process,’ European Security, Vol. 614: No. 2 (Winter 1997): pp. 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 6.
    See Christopher Layne, ‘Why Die for Gdansk?’ in Ted Galen Carpenter and Barbara Conry (eds.), NATO Enlargement: Illusions and Reality (Washington, D.C.: The CATO Institute Press, 1997), pp. 53–70.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    For discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of each new NATO member, see Andrew Michta (ed.), America’s New Allies (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  6. 19.
    Peter W. Rodman, ‘The Fallout from Kosovo,’ Foreign Affairs, Vol. 78: No. 4 (July/August 1999): p. 48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sean Kay

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations