Advertisement

NATO and Africa 1949–89: An Overview

  • Christopher Coker
Chapter

Abstract

When NATO was first established in 1949 the need for co-operation outside Europe as well as within had been taken for granted. The British and French only desisted from pressing for a formal undertaking to defend their overseas possessions when they realised that the proposal would never have won the endorsement of the US Senate. Instead agreement was limited to Article 4 of the Atlantic Treaty by which the signatories agreed to consult each other “if in the opinion of any of them the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the parties is threatened.” It was generally understood at the time that the article did not apply to interests outside Europe. A harassed Dean Acheson explained in a secret testimony before Congress that if British or French warships were attacked by Soviet submarines in the Indian Ocean neither the United Kingdom nor France would be able to invoke the Atlantic Treaty.1 Aware of Congressional sensitivity on the matter the Truman administration settled for what it could get.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 3.
    R. Emerson, The US and Africa: background papers and final report of 13th American Assembly (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958).Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    A. Rivkin, ‘Lost goals in Africa’, Foreign Affairs 44 (October 1965) p. 148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 5.
    L. Martin (ed.), Neutralism and non-alignment (New York: 1962), p. 52.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    R. Connolly: ‘Africa’s strategic significance’, in Grove Haines (ed.): Africa Today (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1955), p. 56.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    Cited in A. Vandenbosch, South Africa and the world: the foreign policy of apartheid (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1970), pp. 131–2.Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    Cited in J. Barber, South Africa’s foreign policy 1945–70 (Oxford: University Press, 1973), p. 82.Google Scholar
  7. 11.
    D. Acheson, Present at the Creation (London: Hamish Hamilton 1970) p. 219.Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    John Marcum, The Angolan revolution 1950–62 (Cambridge: M.I.T., 1969), p. 183.Google Scholar
  9. 20.
    Cited in Olave Stokke and Carl Widstrand (eds.), The UN-OAU Conference on Southern Africa (Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1973), p. 33.Google Scholar
  10. 26.
    Cited in C. Legum (ed.), Africa Contemporary Record 1970–1 (London: Rex Collings, 1971) pp. C44-7.Google Scholar
  11. 27.
    J. Marcum, The Angolan revolution: exile politics and guerrilla warfare 1962–76 (Cambridge: M.I.T., 1978), pp. 421–22.Google Scholar
  12. 29.
    Cited in C. Legum (ed.), Africa Contemporary Record 1978–9 (London: Rex Collings, 1979) p. A92.Google Scholar
  13. 52.
    B. Palmer, US security interests in Africa south of the Sahara, American Enterprise Institute Defence Review, 2, 6 (1978) 39–40.Google Scholar
  14. 53.
    Cited in M.A. Samuel (ed.) Africa and the West (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1980) p. 96.Google Scholar
  15. 62.
    See C. Coker, NATO, the Warsaw Pact and Africa (London: Macmillan, 1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 67.
    A. Isaacman, Mozambique: from colonialism to revolution (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1983) p. 181.Google Scholar
  17. 68.
    B. Weimer, ‘Southern Africa and the West in the post Nkomati period: the case of Mozambique’ in C. Coker (ed.) Western military intervention in the Third World (London: Macmillan, 1988), p. 189.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Coker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations