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From the Inside Out: Domestic Influences on Global Environmental Policy

  • Neil E. Harrison
Chapter

Abstract

The United States has been an important actor in multilateral negotiations on stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change. In the mid-1970s it was responsible for about half of all emissions of ozone-depleting substances, and at the beginning of the climate negotiations in 1991 it was producing about one-quarter of the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, in 1975 the United States was one of the first countries to recognize the environmental dangers of emissions of ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and was an early advocate for international action.1 In climate change the United States initially opposed substantive international action. Neither issue has evinced the same political interest as environmental problems closer to home or nearer the pocketbook. However, in both issues U.S. foreign policy has responded to domestic political constraints and opportunities.

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Notes

  1. 2.
    The two-level games metaphor was introduced by Robert D. Putnam, “Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games,” International Organization 42, no. 3 (Summer 1988): 427–60. The preferred term in the relevant international relations literature is “Chief of Government”: that decider, person, group, elite, or institution that selects between conflicting positions based in different interests and beliefs. In the United States, the foreign policy elite may change over time and between issues, as will become clear in this chapter, but almost always includes the president. The decisionmaking group may represent a very small cabal that supports policies opposed to the views of the majority of members of the executive branch.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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© Paul G. Harris 2000

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  • Neil E. Harrison

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