Trends in Chinese Defense Spending and the Illusive Goal of Modernization

  • Solomon M. Karmel


Acurrency that has never been completely convertible, the continued existence of nonmarket inputs and outputs, and deliberately opaque information are among the most obvious problems that plague analyses of China’s defense budget. Analyses of historical changes in defense spending are further hampered by incomplete information not only about components of defense spending but also about changes over time in how the components are calculated and presented.


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© Solomon M. Karmel 2000

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  • Solomon M. Karmel

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