Conclusion: Local Collaboration in the Holocaust
There is a growing recognition amongst historians of the need to modify some of the widely received perceptions of how the Holocaust was implemented. Between 1941 and 1943, according to Hilberg’s cautious calculations, approximately 2 000 000 Jews were killed within the May 1941 borders of the Soviet Union, primarily by shooting in pits close to their homes.1 The role played by the iitEinsatzgruppen has become infamous on the basis of their own detailed documentation. However, there was a ‘Second Wave’ of killings in the summer and autumn of 1942. In the areas under German civil administration in western Belorussia and Ukraine this ‘Second Wave’ proved more destructive than the first, comprising the elimination of all but a few main work ghettoes. The Nazi aim was to cleanse these regions of their Jewish inhabitants: to render them ‘iitJudenfrei’.2
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