• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Ancient Syria, a region encompassing modern Israel, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan, was home to some of the world’s earliest civilizations. From the city of Ebla, founded around 3000 BC, the Semitic empire developed. This was succeeded around 2260 BC by the Akkadian empire, then by the Amorites whose cities fell to the Hittites in the mid-2nd millennium BC. During the next 500 years Canaanites, Phoenicians, Aryans, Aramaeans and Hebrews settled different parts of the region. From the 9th-7th centuries BC the Assyrian empire dominated until, weakened by Cimmerian and Scythian immigration, it gave way to Babylonian rule.


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Further Reading

  1. Choueiri, Y., State and Society in Syria and Lebanon. 1994Google Scholar
  2. George, Alan, Syria: Neither Bread nor Freedom. 2003Google Scholar
  3. Goodarzi, Jubin, Syria and Iran: Diplomatic Alliance and Power Politics in the Middle East. 2006Google Scholar
  4. Guo, Luc, Understanding Syria: History, Geography, Economy. 2011Google Scholar
  5. Hinnebusch, Raymond, Syria: Revolution From Above. 2002Google Scholar
  6. Hitti, Philip K., History of Syria Including Lebanon and Palestine. 2002Google Scholar
  7. Kienle, Eberhard, Contemporary Syria: Liberalization Between Cold War and Peace. 1997Google Scholar
  8. Lesch, David W., The New Lion of Damascus: Bashar Al Asad and Modern Syria. 2005Google Scholar
  9. Moubayed, Sami, Steel and Silk: Men and Women Who Shaped Syria 1900–2000. 2005Google Scholar
  10. Perthes, Volker, Syria Under Bashar Al-Asad: Modernisation and the Limits of Change. 2005Google Scholar
  11. Starr, Stephen, Revolt in Syria: Eye-Witness to the Uprising. 2012Google Scholar
  12. Van Dam, Nikolaos, The Struggle for Power in Syria: Politics and Society Under Asad and the Ba’th Party. 2011Google Scholar
  13. National Statistical Office: Central Bureau of Statistics, Nizar Kabbani St., Abu Romanneh, Damascus.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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