The earliest known inhabitants were nomadic bushmen. From the 4th century AD, Bantu tribes farmed the region and established villages. Copper was mined for weapons and tools and from the 11th century, trade developed with neighbouring regions in copper and textiles. From 1500–1900 the region was divided into four tribal kingdoms: the Kazembe-Lunda in the north, the Bemba in the northeast, the Chewa in the east and the Barotse, later known as the Lozi, in the west. An inland region, it was not penetrated by non-Africans until the late 18th century, when Portuguese traders arrived near Lake Mweru. The Scottish explorer David Livingstone followed in the mid-19th century, and in the 1880s the British colonialist and mining magnate, Cecil Rhodes, arrived.
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