Evidence of human settlement from at least 2200 BC is believed to be that of the Oxus civilization which extended across central Asia from Turkmenistan to Tajikistan. The region came under the influence of the first Persian Empire, centred on Persepolis, from around 550 BC when it was known as Sogdiana. Alexander the Great conquered Sogdiana and the ancient Greek kingdom of Bactria in 327 BC, marrying Roxane, daughter of a Sogdian chieftain.
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