• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The Ottomans invaded Lebanon, then part of Syria, in 1516–17 and held nominal control until 1918. After 20 years’ of French mandatory regime, Lebanon was proclaimed independent on 26 Nov. 1941. In early May 1958 the Muslim opposition to President Chamoun rose in insurrection and for five months the Muslim quarters of Beirut, Tripoli, Sidon and the northern Bekaa were in insurgent hands. On 15 July the US Government landed army and marines who re-established Government authority. Internal problems were exacerbated by the Palestinian problem. An attempt to regulate the activities of Palestinian fighters through the secret Cairo agreement of 1969 was frustrated both by the inability of the Government to enforce its provisions and by an influx of battle-hardened fighters expelled from Jordan in Sept. 1970. From March 1975 Lebanon was beset by civil disorder bringing the economy to a virtual standstill.


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Further Reading

  1. Choueiri, Y. M., State and Society in Syria and Lebanon. 1994Google Scholar
  2. Fisk, R., Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War. 3rd ed. 2001Google Scholar
  3. Gemayel, A., Rebuilding Lebanon. 1992Google Scholar
  4. Harris, William, The New Face of Lebanon: History’s Revenge. 2005Google Scholar
  5. Hiro, D., Lebanon Fire and Embers: a History of the Lebanese Civil War. 1993Google Scholar
  6. Hirst, David, Beware of Small States: Lebanon, Battleground of the Middle East. 2010Google Scholar
  7. Young, Michael, The Ghosts of Martyrs Square: An Eyewitness Account of Lebanon’s Life Struggle. 2010Google Scholar
  8. National library: Dar el Kutub, Parliament Sq., Beirut.Google Scholar
  9. National Statistical Office: Service de Statistique Générale, Beirut.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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