• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Lithuania has been inhabited since the 10th millennium BC, with agriculture developing in the 3rd millennium BC. Baltic tribes settled in the area around 2000 BC. In the 13th century AD their lands came under threat from two German religious orders, the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, prompting several of the tribes to establish a defensive union. The union defeated the Livonians in 1236 and in 1250 its leader, Mindaugas, signed a peace treaty with the Teutonic Order.


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Further Reading

  1. Department of Statistics to the Government. Statistical Yearbook of Lithuania. Annual. Economic and Social Development in Lithuania. Monthly.Google Scholar
  2. Lieven, A., Te Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence. 2nd ed. 1994Google Scholar
  3. Misiunas, R. J. and Taagepera, R., Te Baltic States: the Years of Dependence, 1940–91. 2nd ed. 1993Google Scholar
  4. O’Connor, Kevin, Te History of the Baltic States. 2003Google Scholar
  5. Smith, David J., Purs, Aldis, Pabriks, Artis and Lane, Tomas, (eds.) Te Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. 2002Google Scholar
  6. Vardys, V. S. and Sedaitis, J. B., Lithuania: the Rebel Nation. 1997Google Scholar
  7. National Statistical Ofce: Department of Statistics to the Government, Gedimino Pr. 29, LT 01 500 Vilnius. Acting Director General: Vilija Lapėnienė.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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