• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Hunter-gatherers lived in Peru from at least 9000 BC. Irrigation canals discovered recently in the Andean foothills of northern Peru date farming from around 3400 BC. The Chavin culture in central and northern Peru between 900 BC and 200 BC left monumental temples and intricate artwork across a wide area. The Paracas culture emerged on the southern coast in around 300 BC and evolved into the Nazca culture, famed for its exquisite textiles. Further north, the coastal Moche culture flourished between around 100 BC and 700 AD, producing distinctive metalwork and pottery. The following centuries saw the rise of inland, Andean cultures and powerful city states such as Chancay, Sipan and Cajamarca.


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Further Reading

  1. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informâtica.—Anuario Estadistico del Peru.—Peru: Compendio Estadístico. Annual.—Boletin de Estadistica Peruana. QuarterlyGoogle Scholar
  2. Banco Central de Reserva. Monthly Bulletin.—Renta Nacional del Perú. AnnualGoogle Scholar
  3. Cameron, M. A., Democracy and Authoritarianism in Peru: Political Coalitions and Social Change. 1995Google Scholar
  4. Carrion, Julio F., The Fujimori Legacy: The Rise of Electoral Authoritarianism in Peru. 2006Google Scholar
  5. Daeschner, J., The War of the End of Democracy: Mario Vargas Llosa vs. Alberto Fujimori. 1993Google Scholar
  6. Gorriti, Gustavo, (trans. Robin Kirk) The Shining Path: A History of the Millenarian War in Peru. 1999Google Scholar
  7. Starn, Orin, The Peru Reader: History, Culture, Politics. 2005Google Scholar
  8. Stokes, S. C., Cultures in Conflict: Social Movements and the State in Peru. 1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Strong, S., Shining Path. 1993Google Scholar
  10. Vargas Llosa, A., The Madness of Things Peruvian: Democracy under Siege. 1994Google Scholar
  11. National Statistical Office: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informática, Av. Gral. Garzón 654–658, Jesus María, Lima.Google Scholar
  12. Website (Spanish only):

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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