Records date back to 9 BC, when the Romans subdued the Celts to establish Pannonia. From the 5th century both Romans and Celts retreated before attacks from the Huns who were followed by the Avars in the 7th century and the Magyars in the 9th. It was then that the name On ogur (‘ten arrows’) was adopted for the country that was to become Hungary. The founding date of Hungary is put at 896 after which Árpád, leader of one of the Magyar tribes, forged a dynasty which ruled Hungary until 1301. Forays into Italy, Germany, the Balkans and Spain ended after the Magyars were defeated by Holy Roman Emperor Otto I at the battle of Lechfeld in 955, and the Ostmark (Austria) was returned to Germanic control.
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