• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


There is evidence of pastoralism and the cultivation of cereals in southwest Egypt from as early as 7000 BC. Settlements grew along the Nile valley, though Upper and Lower Egypt only united around 3100 BC under Pharoah Menés. The subsequent Early Dynastic period was marked by flourishing trade with Sinai, the Levant and as far north as the Black Sea. The astonishing artistic and intellectual developments of the Old Kingdom began during the IVth dynasty (2575–2465 BC), when sun-worship took hold and temples and pyramids, including those at Giza, were constructed. Egypt was governed from the city of Memphis, south of modern Cairo, reaching its height during the VIth dynasty before losing power to local rulers from around 2200 BC.


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Further Reading

  1. CAPMAS, Statistical Year Book, Arab Republic of Egypt Google Scholar
  2. Abdel-Khalek, G., Stabilization and Adjustment in Egypt. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Daly, M. W. (ed.) The Cambridge History of Egypt. 2 vols. CUP, 2000Google Scholar
  4. El-Mikawy, Noha and Handoussa, Heba, (eds.) Institutional Reform and Economic Development in Egypt. American University in Cairo Press, 2004Google Scholar
  5. Hopwood, D., Egypt: Politics and Society 1945–1990. 3rd ed. London, 1992Google Scholar
  6. Ibrahim, Fouad N. and Ibrahim, Barbara, Egypt: An Economic Geography. I. B. Tauris, London, 2001Google Scholar
  7. King, J. W., Historical Dictionary of Egypt. 2nd ed. Revised by A. Goldschmidt. Metuchen (NJ), 1995Google Scholar
  8. Malek, J. (ed.) Egypt. Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1993Google Scholar
  9. Raymond, André, Cairo. Harvard Univ. Press, 2001Google Scholar
  10. Rodenbeck, M., Cairo—the City Victorious. Picador, London, 1998Google Scholar
  11. Rubin, Barry, Islamic Fundamentalism in Egyptian Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2002Google Scholar
  12. Vatikiotis, P. J., History of Modern Egypt: from Muhammad Ali to Mubarak. London, 1991Google Scholar
  13. National Statistical Office: Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS), Nasr City, Cairo.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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