Advertisement

Republican China, 1911–49

  • J. A. G. Roberts
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Essential Histories book series (EH)

Abstract

On 10 October 1911, a date thereafter known as the ‘Double Tenth’, a mutiny headed by New Army officers broke out at Wuchang. They seized the city and obtained the support of the Hubei provincial assembly, which declared the province independent from the empire. By December all the provinces of central and southern China had followed suit. A republic was declared and Sun Zhongshan (Sun Yatsen) was invited to become provisional president. The Qing court appealed to Yuan Shikai, the most influential military commander in the north, to come to its support, but instead he decided to support the republic and to force the emperor to abdicate.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 2.
    Mary Clabaugh Wright, ‘Introduction: The rising tide of change’, in Mary Clabaugh Wright (ed.), China in Revolution: The First Phase, 1900–1913 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1973) pp. 1–63.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Joseph W. Esherick, Reform and Revolution in China: The 1911 Revolution in Hunan and Hubei (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1976) p. 175.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Ernest P. Young, The Presidency of Yuan Shih-k’ai: Liberalism and Dictatorship in Early Republican China (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977) p. 243.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Franz Michael, ‘Introduction’, in Stanley Spector, Li Hung-chang and the Huai Army: A Study in Nineteenth-Century Chinese Regionalism (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1964) pp. xxi–xliii.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Jerome Ch’en, Yuan Shih-k’ai, 1859–1916: Brutus Assumes the Purple, 2nd edn (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1972) p. 214.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    Edward A. McCord, The Power of the Gun: The Emergence of Modern Chinese Warlordism (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993) pp. 309–15.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    James E. Sheridan, China in Disintegration: The Republican Era in Chinese History, 1912–1949 (New York: The Free Press, 1975) pp. 183–206.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    Julia C. Lin, Modem Chinese Poetry: An Introduction (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1972) p. 85.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    W. T. de Bary et al. (eds), Sources of Chinese Tradition, 2 vols (New York: Columbia University Press, 1964), vol. II, pp. 156–67.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    S. Y. Teng and J. K. Fairbank (eds), China’s Response to the West: A Documentary Survey, 1839–1923 (New York: Atheneum, 1963) p. 239.Google Scholar
  11. 13.
    Jean Chesneaux, The Chinese Labor Movement, 1919–1927 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1968) pp. 177–210.Google Scholar
  12. 15.
    Stuart R. Schram, The Political Thought of Mao Tse-tung, revised and enlarged edn (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1969) pp. 250–9.Google Scholar
  13. 18.
    Han-seng Chen, Landlord and Peasant in China: A Study of the Agrarian Crisis in South China (New York: International Publishers, 1973)Google Scholar
  14. Ramon H. Myers, The Chinese Peasant Economy: Agricultural Development in Hopei and Shantung, 1890–1949 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970).Google Scholar
  15. 19.
    Douglas S. Paauw, ‘The Kuomintang and economic stagnation 1928–1937’, in Albert Feuerwerker (ed.), Modern China (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1964) pp. 126–35.Google Scholar
  16. 20.
    Thomas G. Rawski, Economic Growth in Prewar China (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1989) pp. xxi–xxi, 332, 344.Google Scholar
  17. 21.
    Robert E. Bedeski, ‘China’s wartime state’, in James C. Hsiung and Steven I. Levine (eds), China’s Bitter Victory: The War with Japan 1937–1945 (New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1992) pp. 33–49.Google Scholar
  18. 22.
    Lloyd E. Eastman, Seeds of Destruction: Nationalist China in War and Revolution, 1937–1949 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1984) p. 43.Google Scholar
  19. 23.
    John S. Service, Lost Chance in China: The World War II Despatches of John 5. Service (New York: Random House, 1974) pp. 178–81.Google Scholar
  20. 24.
    Chalmers A. Johnson, Peasant Nationalism and Communist Power: The Emergence of Revolutionary China, 1937–1945 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1962) p. 59.Google Scholar
  21. 25.
    Donald G. Gillin, ‘“Peasant nationalism” in the history of Chinese Communism’, Journal of Asian Studies, 23.2 (February 1964) pp. 269–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mark Seiden, The Yenan Way in Revolutionary China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© J. A. G. Roberts 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. G. Roberts

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations