The Making of a Semi-Civil Society in Deng’s Era
One characteristic of China’s reform era that has continued apace even after 4 June 1989 and its associated events has been the emergence of numerous autonomous organizations in economic and cultural spheres independent of the state and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). No such associations could develop during the rule of Mao Zedong and they contradict the totalitarian society. This chapter outlines the historical and contemporary development of autonomous organizations in modern China. It then assesses, using the four features of Schmitter’s ideal type, the degree to which various contemporary associations constitute a civil society.
KeywordsCivil Society Chinese Communist Party Cultural Revolution Political Reform Social Organ
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