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Superpower Cooperation in South America

  • Howard J. Wiarda

Abstract

The United States has long been thought of, and has thought of itself, as the hegemonic power in Latin America. In the Western Hemisphere, since 1898 in the circum Caribbean and somewhat later in South America, the United States has been supreme — economically, politically, and militarily. A variety of popular images and metaphors convey the point: the United States is referred to, by the Latin Americans, as the ‘colossus of the north’, the great ‘shark’ as opposed to the Latin American ‘sardines’, the ‘imperialists’, or, more neutrally, ‘the giant’. The metaphors used in the United States convey equally hegemonic images: Americans refer to the Latin American region as ‘our backyard’, the Caribbean as ‘our lake’, or, more kindly, ‘close to home’. United States hegemony has been so dominant for so long and the image of the ‘giant’ so pervasive that when Cole Blasier wrote his path-breaking study of the Soviet Union in Latin America, it is significant that he chose also to emphasize the US role by titling his book The Giant’s Rival: The USSR and Latin America.1 Even a book dealing with the Soviet Union in Latin America was obliged to stress the US role first.

Keywords

Foreign Policy Dominican Republic South American Country Guerrilla Movement Guerrilla Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    C. Blasier, The Giant’s Rival: The U.S.S.R. and Latin America (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1983).Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    See the analyses provided in Howard J. Wiarda, In Search of Policy: The United States and Latin America (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1984)Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    See the discussion in Terry L. Deibel and John Lewis Gaddis (eds), Containment: Concept and Policy (Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1986)Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    For background see Blasier, op. cit.; ‘The Rising Soviet Presence in Latin America’, a special issue of World Affairs, vol. 149 (Fall, 1986); and Howard J. Wiarda and Mark Falcoff, The Communist Challenge in the Caribbean and Central America (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1987).Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Mercier Vega, Roads to Power inLatin America (New York: Praeger, 1969).Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    The best study is Ronald C. Schneider, Communism in Guatemala, 1944–54 (New York: Praeger, 1959).Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    See the chapters by Juan del Aguila and Raymond Duncan in Edward A. Kolodziej and Roger E. Kanet (eds), The Limits of Soviet Power in the Developing World: Thermidor in the Revolutionary Struggle (London: Macmillan, 1989).Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    R. Debray, ‘Revolution in the Revolution’, in Walter Laqueur (ed.), The Guerrilla Reader (New York: Meridian Books, 1977).Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    Ché Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare (New York: Vintage Books, 1961).Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    Karl Meyer and Tad Szulc, The Cuban Invasion: Chronicle of a Disaster (New York: Praeger, 1962).Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    See Howard J. Wiarda, ‘The United States and the Dominican Republic: Intervention, Dependency, and Tyrannicide’, Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, vol. 22 (May 1980), pp. 247–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 15.
    See the book-length project being carried out at the Foreign Policy Research Institute, directed by Vladimir Tismaneanu and Howard J. Wiarda, on ‘The Crises in Communist Regimes’; see also the special issue of World Affairs, vol. 150, no. 3 (Winter 1987–8)Google Scholar
  13. 16.
    G. Pope Atkins and George Fauriol (eds), South America into the 1990s: Evolving International Relationships in a New Era (New York: Praeger, 1989).Google Scholar
  14. 17.
    For elaboration on the reasons to be pessimistic, see Howard J. Wiarda, ‘The United States and Latin America: Toward the 1990s’, The Five College International Forum, vol. 2 (Fall 1988), pp. 24–31.Google Scholar
  15. 18.
    See the debate on Latin America and other areas, in Jiri Valenta and M. Rageretnam (eds), Gorbachev’s ‘New Thinking’ and Regional Conflicts in the Third World (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1989).Google Scholar
  16. 20.
    Jorge Domínguez (ed.), US-Cuban Relations in the 1990s (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1989).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Roger E. Kanet and Edward A. Kolodziej 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard J. Wiarda

There are no affiliations available

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