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Viral Pathogenesis, Modulation of Immune Receptor Signaling and Treatment

  • Walter M. Kim
  • Alexander B. Sigalov
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 640)

Abstract

During the co-evolution of viruses and their hosts, the latter have equipped themselves with an elaborate immune system to defend themselves from the invading viruses. In order to establish a successful infection, replicate and persist in the host, viruses have evolved numerous strategies to counter and evade host antiviral immune responses as well as exploit them for productive viral replication. These strategies include those that target immune receptor transmembrane signaling. Uncovering the exact molecular mechanisms underlying these critical points in viral pathogenesis will not only help us understand strategies used by viruses to escape from the host immune surveillance but also reveal new therapeutic targets for antiviral as well as immunomodulatory therapy. In this chapter, based on our current understanding of transmembrane signal transduction mediated by multichain immune recognition receptors (MIRRs) and the results of sequence analysis, we discuss the MIRR-targeting viral strategies of immune evasion and suggest their possible mechanisms that, in turn, reveal new points of antiviral intervention. We also show how two unrelated enveloped viruses, human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomegalovirus, use a similar mechanism to modulate the host immune response mediated by two functionally different MIRRs—T-cell antigen receptor and natural killer cell receptor, NKp30. This suggests that it is very likely that similar general mechanisms can be or are used by other viral and possibly nonviral pathogens.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Viral Pathogenesis Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Viral Strategy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter M. Kim
    • 1
  • Alexander B. Sigalov
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA

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