Advertisement

The Duality of Social Systems and the Environmental Movement in Japan

  • Harutoshi Funabashi
Chapter
Part of the Nonprofit and Civil Society Studies book series (NCSS)

Abstract

The sociological theory of the “dual character of social systems” explains the role and the character of social movements and is applied here to environmental problems. This theory argues that all forms of social organization contain two analytically different systems of social control: a system of domination and a system of management. In reality, these two are merged into each other. But making the analytical distinction reveals the nature of the interaction between movements and governmental offices. In this view, government and movements generate three types of problem-solving processes. The first type involves the management system, where governments and movements cooperate to solve social problems. The second type involves the domination system, where the government subordinates and imposes sufferings on residents, turning them into victims. These victims then organize social movements to resist their oppressor. In the third type, “cooperative problem solving by opposing actors,” systems of domination and management interact. Government and movement actors, though having opposed interests nevertheless find a cooperative way to produce mutually beneficial solutions. The solution of environmental problems, now so universal, requires intervention into and reorganization of the economic system. This intervention proceeds through four stages: (A) Lack of constraints on the economic system, (B) Imposition of constraints, (C) Incorporation of environmental concern as a secondary management task, and (D) Incorporation of environmental concern as a primary management task. In order to push this reorganization toward stage D, environmental movements must acquire more capacity for cooperative problem solving with government in the management of problems, and also to resist when deprived by the domination system.

Keywords

Social Movement Management Task Garbage Collection Environmental Movement Incineration Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Funabashi, H. 1980. “Kyodorenkan no Ryogisei: Keiei-shisutemu to Shihai-shisuteme” (Dual Character of the Social System: Management System and Domination System). pp. 209–231 in Gendai Shakai no Shakaigaku, edited by G. S. Kenkyukai. Tokyo: Kawashimasyoten.Google Scholar
  2. Funabashi, H. 1992. “Environmental Problems in Postwar Japanese Society”. International Journal of Japanese Sociology 1:3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Funabashi, H. 2004. “Intervention of the Environmental Control System in the Economic System and the Environmental Cluster”. pp. 137–159 in The Environmental Challenges for Japan and Germany: Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Perspectives, edited by G. Szell and K. Tominaga. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  4. Funabashi, H. 2006. “Minamata Disease and Environmental Governance”. International Journal of Japanese Sociology 15:7–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. George, T. S, 2001. Minamata: Pollution and the Struggle for Democracy in Postwar Japan, Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Asia Center.Google Scholar
  6. Harada, M. 2004. Minamata Disease, Kumamoto Nichinichi Shinbun Culture and Information Center (Translated by T. Sachie and T. S. George, translation edited by T. S. George).Google Scholar
  7. Ide, T. 1990. Kogai: Mikansei Koukoukyoku (Pollution: unfinished symphony). Tokyo: Kyoudou-tosho-service.Google Scholar
  8. Iijima, N. 1979. Pollution Japan: Historical Chronology. Tokyo: Asahi Evening Press.Google Scholar
  9. Iijima, N. and H. Funabashi (eds). 1999. Niigata Minamatabyo Mondai: Kagai to Higai no Shakaigaku (Environmental Sociology of Niigata Minamata Disease). Tokyou: Toshindou.Google Scholar
  10. Lawrence, P. R. and J. Lorsch. 1967. Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Spaargaren,G., A. P. J. Mol and F. H. Buttel (eds). 2000. Environment and Global Modernity. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  12. Suginami-shouyoukinen-zaidan. 1983. “Tokyou-gomi-sensou: Takaido Jumin no Kiroku (“Tokyou Garvage War”: historical record of residents in Takaido). Tokyo: Suginami-shouyoukinen-zaidan.Google Scholar
  13. Touraine, A. 1973. Production de la société. Paris: Édition de Seuil.Google Scholar
  14. Ui, J. 1992. “Minamata Disease”. pp. 103–132 in Industrial Pollution in Japan, edited by J. Ui. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Yorimoto, K. 1981. Genba no Shiso to Chiho-jichi (A thought based on field and local self-government). Tokyo: Gakuyou-shobou.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hosei UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations