Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Homozygosity for an Extremely Rare Variant in DPYD due to Uniparental Isodisomy of Chromosome 1
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the pyrimidine degradation pathway and can lead to intellectual disability, motor retardation, and seizures. Genetic variations in DPYD have also emerged as predictive risk factors for severe toxicity in cancer patients treated with fluoropyrimidines. We recently observed a child born to non-consanguineous parents, who demonstrated seizures, cognitive impairment, language delay, and MRI abnormalities and was found to have marked thymine-uraciluria. No residual DPD activity could be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Molecular analysis showed that the child was homozygous for the very rare c.257C > T (p.Pro86Leu) variant in DPYD. Functional analysis of the recombinantly expressed DPD mutant showed that the DPD mutant carrying the p.Pro86Leu did not possess any residual DPD activity. Carrier testing in parents revealed that the father was heterozygous for the variant but unexpectedly the mother did not carry the variant. Microsatellite repeat testing with markers covering chromosome 1 showed that the DPD deficiency in the child is due to paternal uniparental isodisomy. Our report thus extends the genetic spectrum underlying DPYD deficiency.