pp 1-14 | Cite as

Immunogenicity and Immunodominance in Antibody Responses

  • Monique Vogel
  • Martin F. BachmannEmail author
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series


A large number of vaccines exist that control many of the most important infectious diseases. Despite these successes, there remain many pathogens without effective prophylactic vaccines. Notwithstanding strong difference in the biology of these infectious agents, there exist common problems in vaccine design. Many infectious agents have highly variable surface antigens and/or unusually high antibody levels are required for protection. Such high variability may be addressed by using conserved epitopes and these are, however, usually difficult to display with the right conformation in an immunogenic fashion. Exceptionally high antibody titers may be achieved using life vectors or virus-like display of the epitopes. Hence, an important goal in modern vaccinology is to induce high antibody responses against fragile antigens.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Rheumatology, Immunology and AllergologyUniversity Hospital BernBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.The Jenner InstituteUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

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