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Energy and Fossil Fuels as a Topic of WTO Accession Protocols

  • Anna MarholdEmail author
  • Friedl Weiss
Part of the European Yearbook of International Economic Law book series


This contribution seeks to analyse and compare WTO Accession Protocols, particularly the interpretations given relevant commitments made in them regarding energy and fossil fuels. After first providing an outline of the accession process and its importance for the natural resources and energy sector, the chapter proceeds with discussing relevant sections of Accession Protocols of major energy producing, exporting and/or transporting WTO Members that have joined the Organization since 1995. This exercise demonstrates that energy and fossil fuels have gradually developed as prominent topics in Members’ accession negotiations, resulting in an increasing amount of commitments on transit and export duties on raw materials and fossil fuels.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tilburg Law and Economics Center (TILEC)Tilburg UniversityTilburgThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of European, International and Comparative Law, Faculty of LawUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

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