Advertisement

What Is Memory-Guided Attention? How Past Experiences Shape Selective Visuospatial Attention in the Present

  • Danlei ChenEmail author
  • J. Benjamin Hutchinson
Chapter
Part of the Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences book series (CTBN, volume 41)

Abstract

What controls our attention? It is historically thought that there are two primary factors that determine selective attention: the perceptual salience of the stimuli and the goals based on the task at hand. However, this distinction doesn’t neatly capture the varied ways our past experience can influence our ongoing mental processing. In this chapter, we aim to describe how past experience can be systematically characterized by different types of memory, and we outline experimental evidence suggesting how attention can then be guided by each of these different memory types. We highlight findings from human behavioral, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological work from the perspective of two related frameworks of human memory: the multiple memory systems (MMS) framework and the neural processing (NP) framework. The MMS framework underscores how memory can be separated based on consciousness (declarative and non-declarative memory), while the NP framework emphasizes different forms of memory as reflective of different brain processing modes (rapid encoding of flexible associations, slow encoding of rigid associations, and rapid encoding of single or unitized items). We describe how memory defined by these frameworks can guide our attention, even when they do not directly relate to perceptual salience or the goals concerning the current task. We close by briefly discussing theoretical implications as well as some interesting avenues for future research.

Keywords

Basal ganglia Covert attention Hippocampus Long-term memory Overt attention 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge Thomas M. Biba and Sarah DuBrow’s comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. We also thank the authors who provided their permission for use of their figures.

References

  1. Aly M, Turk-Browne NB (2016a) Attention promotes episodic encoding by stabilizing hippocampal representations. Proc Natl Acad Sci 113(4):E420–E429PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Aly M, Turk-Browne NB (2016b) Attention stabilizes representations in the human hippocampus. Cereb Cortex 26(2):783–796PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Aly M, Turk-Browne NB (2017) How hippocampal memory shapes, and is shaped by, attention. In: The hippocampus from cells to systems. Springer, Cham, pp 369–403Google Scholar
  4. Aly M, Ranganath C, Yonelinas A (2013) Detecting changes in scenes: the hippocampus is critical for strength-based perception. Neuron 78(6):1127–1137PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Aslin RN (2007) What’s in a look? Dev Sci 10(1):48–53PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Awh E, Belopolsky AV, Theeuwes J (2012) Top-down versus bottom-up attentional control: a failed theoretical dichotomy. Trends Cogn Sci 16(8):437–443PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrett LF, Simmons WK (2015) Interoceptive predictions in the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci 16(7):419–429PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Becker SI (2008) The mechanism of priming: episodic retrieval or priming of pop-out? Acta Psychol (Amst) 127(2):324–339Google Scholar
  9. Becker MW, Rasmussen IP (2008) Guidance of attention to objects and locations by long-term memory of natural scenes. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 34(6):1325–1338PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Belke E, Humphreys GW, Watson DG, Meyer AS, Telling AL (2008) Top-down effects of semantic knowledge in visual search are modulated by cognitive but not perceptual load. Percept Psychophys 70(8):1444–1458PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Bichot NP, Schall JD (1999) Saccade target selection in macaque during feature and conjunction visual search. Vis Neurosci 16(1):81–89PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bornstein MH (1985) Habituation of attention as a measure of visual information processing in human infants: summary, systematization, and synthesis. In: Measurement of audition and vision in the first year of postnatal life: a methodological overview. Ablex, Westport, CT, pp 253–300Google Scholar
  13. Broadbent DE (1958) Perception and communication. Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NYGoogle Scholar
  14. Brockmole JR, Henderson JM (2006) Recognition and attention guidance during contextual cueing in real-world scenes: evidence from eye movements. Q J Exp Psychol 59(7):1177–1187Google Scholar
  15. Carrasco M (2011) Visual attention: the past 25 years. Vision Res 51(13):1484–1525PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Castelhano MS, Henderson JM (2007) Initial scene representations facilitate eye movement guidance in visual search. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 33(4):753–763PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Chanon VW, Hopfinger JB (2008) Memory’s grip on attention: the influence of item memory on the allocation of attention. Vis Cogn 16(2–3):325–340Google Scholar
  18. Chun MM (2000) Contextual cueing of visual attention. Trends Cogn Sci 4(5):170–178PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Chun MM, Jiang Y (1998) Contextual cueing: implicit learning and memory of visual context guides spatial attention. Cogn Psychol 36(1):28–71PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Chun MM, Jiang Y (1999) Top-down attentional guidance based on implicit learning of visual covariation. Psychol Sci 10(4):360–365Google Scholar
  21. Chun MM, Jiang Y (2003) Implicit, long-term spatial contextual memory. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 29(2):224–234PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Chun MM, Phelps EA (1999) Memory deficits for implicit contextual information in amnesic subjects with hippocampal damage. Nat Neurosci 2(9):844–847PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Chun MM, Turk-Browne NB (2007) Interactions between attention and memory. Curr Opin Neurobiol 17(2):177–184Google Scholar
  24. Chun MM, Turk-Browne NB (2008) Associative learning mechanisms in vision. In: Visual memory. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 209–245Google Scholar
  25. Chun MM, Golomb JD, Turk-Browne NB (2011) A taxonomy of external and internal attention. Annu Rev Psychol 62(1):73–101PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Clark A (2013) Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science. Behav Brain Sci 36(3):181–204PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen N, Squire L (1980) Preserved learning and retention of pattern-analyzing skill in amnesia: dissociation of knowing how and knowing that. Science 210(4466):207–210PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Corbetta M, Shulman GL (2002) Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci 3(3):201–215Google Scholar
  29. Cowan N (1988) Evolving conceptions of memory storage, selective attention, and their mutual constraints within the human information-processing system. Psychol Bull 104(2):163–191Google Scholar
  30. Davachi L, Goldman-Rakic PS (2001) Primate rhinal cortex participates in both visual recognition and working memory tasks: functional mapping with 2-DG. J Neurophysiol 85(6):2590–2601PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Davenport JL, Potter MC (2004) Scene consistency in object and background perception. Psychol Sci 15(8):559–564PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Degonda N, Mondadori CR, Bosshardt S, Schmidt CF, Boesiger P, Nitsch RM, Hock C, Henke K (2005) Implicit associative learning engages the hippocampus and interacts with explicit associative learning. Neuron 46(3):505–520PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Desimone R (1996) Neural mechanisms for visual memory and their role in attention. Proc Natl Acad Sci 93(24):13494–13499PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Desimone R, Duncan J (1995) Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Annu Rev Neurosci 18(1):193–222PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Dudukovic NM, Wagner AD (2006) Attending to remember and remembering to attend. Neuron 49(6):784–787PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Eichenbaum H, Yonelinas AP, Ranganath C (2007) The medial temporal lobe and recognition memory. Annu Rev Neurosci 30(1):123–152PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Elliott EM, Cowan N (2001) Habituation to auditory distractors in a cross-modal, colorword interference task. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27(3):654–667PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Fan JE, Turk-Browne NB (2016) Incidental biasing of attention from visual long-term memory. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 42(6):970–977PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Fantz RL (1964) Visual experience in Infants: decreased attention to familiar patterns relative to novel ones. Science 146(3644):668–670Google Scholar
  40. Fecteau JH (2007) Priming of pop-out depends upon the current goals of observers. J Vis 7(6):1–1PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Flowers JH, Polansky ML, Kerl S (1981) Familiarity, redundancy, and the spatial control of visual attention. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 7(1):157–166PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Foerde K, Shohamy D (2011) The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: insight from Parkinsons disease. Neurobiol Learn Mem 96(4):624–636PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Folk CL, Remington R (1998) Selectivity in distraction by irrelevant featural singletons: evidence for two forms of attentional capture. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 24(3):847–858PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Gabrieli JDE (1998) Cognitive neuroscience of human memory. Annu Rev Psychol 49(1):87–115PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Gabrieli JD, Keane MM, Zarella MM, Poldrack RA (1997) Preservation of implicit memory for new associations in global amnesia. Psychol Sci 8(4):326–329Google Scholar
  46. Geng JJ, Behrmann M (2005) Spatial probability as an attentional cue in visual search. Percept Psychophys 67(7):1252–1268PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Glanzer M, Cunitz AR (1966) Two storage mechanisms in free recall. J Verbal Learn Verbal Behav 5(4):351–360Google Scholar
  48. Goldfarb EV, Chun MM, Phelps EA (2016) Memory-guided attention: independent contributions of the hippocampus and striatum. Neuron 89(2):317–324PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Goschy H, Bakos S, Mller HJ, Zehetleitner M (2014) Probability cueing of distractor locations: both intertrial facilitation and statistical learning mediate interference reduction. Front Psychol 5:1195PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Goshen-Gottstein Y, Moscovitch M, Melo B (2000) Intact implicit memory for newly formed verbal associations in amnesic patients following single study trials. Neuropsychology 14(4):570–578PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Graf P, Schacter DL (1985) Implicit and explicit memory for new associations in normal and amnesic subjects. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 11(3):501–518PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Greene AJ, Gross WL, Elsinger CL, Rao SM (2007) Hippocampal differentiation without recognition: an fMRI analysis of the contextual cueing task. Learn Mem 14(8):548–553PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Grill-Spector K, Henson R, Martin A (2006) Repetition and the brain: neural models of stimulus-specific effects. Trends Cogn Sci 10(1):14–23PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Hall N, Gjedde A, Kupers R (2008) Neural mechanisms of voluntary and involuntary recall: a PET study. Behav Brain Res 186(2):261–272PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Hannula DE, Ranganath C (2008) Medial temporal lobe activity predicts successful relational memory binding. J Neurosci 28(1):116–124PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Hannula DE, Ranganath C (2009) The eyes have It: hippocampal activity predicts expression of memory in eye movements. Neuron 63(5):592–599PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Hannula DE, Ryan JD, Tranel D, Cohen NJ (2007) Rapid onset relational memory effects are evident in eye movement behavior, but not in hippocampal amnesia. J Cogn Neurosci 19(10):1690–1705PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Hayhoe M, Ballard D (2005) Eye movements in natural behavior. Trends Cogn Sci 9(4):188–194PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Henke K (2010) A model for memory systems based on processing modes rather than consciousness. Nat Rev Neurosci 11(7):523–532PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Henke K, Mondadori CRA, Treyer V, Nitsch RM, Buck A, Hock C (2003a) Nonconscious formation and reactivation of semantic associations by way of the medial temporal lobe. Neuropsychologia 41(8):863–876PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Henke K, Treyer V, Nagy ET, Kneifel S, Drsteler M, Nitsch RM, Buck A (2003b) Active hippocampus during nonconscious memories. Conscious Cogn 12(1):31–48PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Hillstrom AP (2000) Repetition effects in visual search. Percept Psychophys 62(4):800–817PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Hoffmann J, Kunde W (1999) Location-specific target expectancies in visual search. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 25(4):1127–1141Google Scholar
  64. Hollerman JR, Tremblay L, Schultz W (1998) Influence of reward expectation on behavior-related neuronal activity in primate striatum. J Neurophysiol 80(2):947–963PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Hollingworth A (2009) Two forms of scene memory guide visual search: memory for scene context and memory for the binding of target object to scene location. Vis Cogn 17(1–2):273–291Google Scholar
  66. Huang L, Holcombe AO, Pashler H (2004) Repetition priming in visual search: episodic retrieval, not feature priming. Mem Cogn 32(1):12–20Google Scholar
  67. Hutchinson JB, Turk-Browne NB (2012) Memory-guided attention: control from multiple memory systems. Trends Cogn Sci 16(12):576–579PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Hutchinson JB, Pak SS, Turk-Browne NB (2015) Biased competition during long-term memory formation. J Cogn Neurosci 28(1):187–197PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Jiang YV (2018) Habitual versus goal-driven attention. Cortex 102:107–120PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Jiang YV, Swallow KM (2013) Spatial reference frame of incidentally learned attention. Cognition 126(3):378–390PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Kawagoe R, Takikawa Y, Hikosaka O (1998) Expectation of reward modulates cognitive signals in the basal ganglia. Nat Neurosci 1(5):411–416PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Kelley TA, Yantis S (2009) Learning to attend: effects of practice on information selection. J Vis 9(7):16–16PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Knowlton BJ, Mangels JA, Squire LR (1996) A neostriatal habit learning system in humans. Science 273(5280):1399–1402PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Knudsen EI (2007) Fundamental components of attention. Annu Rev Neurosci 30(1):57–78PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Kristjnsson CG (2010) Where perception meets memory: a review of repetition priming in visual search tasks. Atten Percept Psychophys 72(1):5–18Google Scholar
  76. Krueger LE (1970) Search time in a redundant visual display. J Exp Psychol 83(3, Pt. 1):391–399PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Kuhl BA, Johnson MK, Chun MM (2013) Dissociable neural mechanisms for goal-directed versus incidental memory reactivation. J Neurosci 33(41):16099–16109PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Lauwereyns J, Watanabe K, Coe B, Hikosaka O (2002) A neural correlate of response bias in monkey caudate nucleus. Nature 418(6896):413–417PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Leber AB, Ji K, Gabari Y (2009) Long-term, abstract learning of attentional set. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 35(5):1385–1397PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Lee H, Mozer MC, Vecera SP (2009) Mechanisms of priming of pop-out: stored representations or feature-gain modulations? Atten Percept Psychophys 71(5):1059–1071PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Leong YC, Radulescu A, Daniel R, DeWoskin V, Niv Y (2017) Dynamic interaction between reinforcement learning and attention in multidimensional environments. Neuron 93(2):451–463PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Logan GD (2002) An instance theory of attention and memory. Psychol Rev 109(2):376–400PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Mack SC, Eckstein MP (2011) Object co-occurrence serves as a contextual cue to guide and facilitate visual search in a natural viewing environment. J Vis 11(9):9–9PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Maljkovic V, Nakayama K (1994) Priming of pop-out: I. Role of features. Mem Cognit 22(6):657–672PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Maljkovic V, Nakayama K (1996) Priming of pop-out: II. The role of position. Percept Psychophys 58(7):977–991PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Maljkovic V, Nakayama K (2000) Priming of popout: III. A short-term implicit memory system beneficial for rapid target selection. Vis Cogn 7(5):571–595Google Scholar
  87. McDonald RJ, White NM (1994) Parallel information processing in the water maze: evidence for independent memory systems involving dorsal striatum and hippocampus. Behav Neural Biol 61(3):260–270PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. McPeek RM, Maljkovic V, Nakayama K (1999) Saccades require focal attention and are facilitated by a short-term memory system. Vision Res 39(8):1555–1566PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Miller J (1988) Components of the location probability effect in visual search tasks. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 14(3):453–471PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Milner B (1962) Memory disturbance after bilateral hippocampal lesions. In: Cognitive processes and the brain. Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, pp 97–111Google Scholar
  91. Moores E, Laiti L, Chelazzi L (2003) Associative knowledge controls deployment of visual selective attention. Nat Neurosci 6(2):182–189PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Moray N (1959) Attention in dichotic listening: affective cues and the influence of instructions. Q J Exp Psychol 11(1):56–60Google Scholar
  93. Moscovitch M, Winocur G, McLachlan D (1986) Memory as assessed by recognition and reading time in normal and memory-impaired people with Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders. J Exp Psychol Gen 115(4):331–347PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Moscovitch M, Cabeza R, Winocur G, Nadel L (2016) Episodic memory and beyond: the hippocampus and neocortex in transformation. Annu Rev Psychol 67(1):105–134PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Neider MB, Zelinsky GJ (2008) Exploring set size effects in scenes: identifying the objects of search. Vis Cogn 16(1):1–10Google Scholar
  96. Neill WT, Beck JL, Bottalico KS, Molloy RD (1990) Effects of intentional versus incidental learning on explicit and implicit tests of memory. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 16(3):457Google Scholar
  97. Neisser U (1981) John Dean’s memory: a case study. Cognition 9(1):1–22PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Olivers CNL (2011) Long-term visual associations affect attentional guidance. Acta Psychol (Amst) 137(2):243–247Google Scholar
  99. Olson IR, Moore KS, Stark M, Chatterjee A (2006a) Visual working memory is impaired when the medial temporal lobe Is damaged. J Cogn Neurosci 18(7):1087–1097Google Scholar
  100. Olson IR, Page K, Moore KS, Chatterjee A, Verfaellie M (2006b) Working memory for conjunctions relies on the medial temporal lobe. J Neurosci 26(17):4596–4601PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Packard MG, Hirsh R, White NM (1989) Differential effects of fornix and caudate nucleus lesions on two radial maze tasks: evidence for multiple memory systems. J Neurosci 9(5):1465–1472PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Panichello MF, Cheung OS, Bar M (2013) Predictive feedback and conscious visual experience. Front Psychol 3Google Scholar
  103. Pashler HE (1998) The psychology of attention. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  104. Pavlov PI (1927) Conditioned reflexes: an investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  105. Poldrack RA, Packard MG (2003) Competition among multiple memory systems: converging evidence from animal and human brain studies. Neuropsychologia 41(3):245–251PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Ranganath C, Blumenfeld RS (2005) Doubts about double dissociations between short- and long-term memory. Trends Cogn Sci 9(8):374–380PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Ranganath C, D’Esposito M (2001) Medial temporal lobe activity associated with active maintenance of novel information. Neuron 31(5):865–873PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Ranganath C, Rainer G (2003) Cognitive neuroscience: neural mechanisms for detecting and remembering novel events. Nat Rev Neurosci 4(3):193–202PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Ranganath C, Cohen MX, Brozinsky CJ (2005) Working memory maintenance contributes to long-term memory formation: neural and behavioral evidence. J Cogn Neurosci 17(7):994–1010PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Rao RPN, Ballard DH (1999) Predictive coding in the visual cortex: a functional interpretation of some extra-classical receptive-field effects. Nat Neurosci 2(1):79–87PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Reicher GM, Snyder CR, Richards JT (1976) Familiarity of background characters in visual scanning. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2(4):522–530PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Rosen ML, Stern CE, Somers DC (2014) Long-term memory guidance of visuospatial attention in a change-detection paradigm. Front Psychol 5Google Scholar
  113. Rosen ML, Stern CE, Michalka SW, Devaney KJ, Somers DC (2016) Cognitive control network contributions to memory-guided visual attention. Cereb Cortex 26(5):2059–2073PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Rothkopf CA, Ballard DH, Hayhoe MM (2007) Task and context determine where you look. J Vis 7(14):16–16PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Ryan JD, Hannula DE, Cohen NJ (2007) The obligatory effects of memory on eye movements. Memory 15(5):508–525PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Saffran JR, Aslin RN, Newport EL (1996) Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science 274(5294):1926–1928PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Salovich NA, Remington RW, Jiang YV (2018) Acquisition of habitual visual attention and transfer to related tasks. Psychon Bull Rev 25(3):1052–1058PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Sato M, Hikosaka O (2002) Role of primate substantia nigra pars reticulata in reward-oriented saccadic eye movement. J Neurosci 22(6):2363–2373PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Schapiro A, Turk-Browne N (2015) Statistical learning. In: Brain mapping: an encyclopedic reference. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 501–506Google Scholar
  120. Schapiro AC, Gregory E, Landau B, McCloskey M, Turk-Browne NB (2014) The necessity of the medial temporal lobe for statistical learning. J Cogn Neurosci 26(8):1736–1747PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Schultz W (2016) Reward functions of the basal ganglia. J Neural Transm 123(7):679–693PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Scoville WB, Milner B (1957) Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 20(1):11–21PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Seidl-Rathkopf KN, Turk-Browne NB, Kastner S (2015) Automatic guidance of attention during real-world visual search. Atten Percept Psychophys 77(6):1881–1895PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Shaw ML, Shaw P (1977) Optimal allocation of cognitive resources to spatial locations. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 3(2):201–211PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Shimamura AP, Squire LR (1989) Impaired priming of new associations in amnesia. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 15(4):721–728PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Sisk CA, Remington RW, Jiang YV (2018) The risks of downplaying top-down control. J Cognit 1(1):23Google Scholar
  127. Snyder KA, Blank MP, Marsolek CJ (2008) What form of memory underlies novelty preferences? Psychon Bull Rev 15(2):315–321PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Sokolov EN (1963) Higher nervous functions: the orienting reflex. Annu Rev Physiol 25(1):545–580PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Squire LR (1992) Declarative and nondeclarative memory: multiple brain systems supporting learning and memory. J Cogn Neurosci 4(3):232–243Google Scholar
  130. Squire LR, Wixted JT (2011) The cognitive neuroscience of human memory since H.M. Annu Rev Neurosci 34(1):259–288PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Squire LR, Knowlton B, Musen G (1993) The structure and organization of memory. Annu Rev Psychol 44(1):453–495PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Stokes MG, Atherton K, Patai EZ, Nobre AC (2012) Long-term memory prepares neural activity for perception. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(6):E360–E367PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Summerfield JJ, Lepsien J, Gitelman DR, Mesulam MM, Nobre AC (2006) Orienting attention based on long-term memory experience. Neuron 49(6):905–916PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Theeuwes J (2018) Visual selection: usually fast and automatic; seldom slow and volitional. J Cognit 1(1):21Google Scholar
  135. Theeuwes J, Burg EVD (2011) On the limits of top-down control of visual selection. Atten Percept Psychophys 73(7):2092PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Torralba A, Oliva A, Castelhano MS, Henderson JM (2006) Contextual guidance of eye movements and attention in real-world scenes: the role of global features in object search. Psychol Rev 113(4):766–786PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Tulving E, Markowitsch HJ, Craik FIM, Habib R, Houle S (1996) Novelty and familiarity activations in PET studies of memory encoding and retrieval. Cereb Cortex 6(1):71–79PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Turatto M, Pascucci D (2016) Short-term and long-term plasticity in the visual-attention system: evidence from habituation of attentional capture. Neurobiol Learn Mem 130:159–169PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Turatto M, Bonetti F, Pascucci D (2018) Filtering visual onsets via habituation: a context-specific long-term memory of irrelevant stimuli. Psychon Bull Rev 25(3):1028–1034PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. Turk-browne NB, Jung JA, Scholl BJ (2005) The automaticity of visual statistical learning. J Exp Psychol Gen (134):552–564Google Scholar
  141. Turk-Browne NB, Scholl BJ, Chun MM, Johnson MK (2008) Neural evidence of statistical learning: efficient detection of visual regularities without awareness. J Cogn Neurosci 21(10):1934–1945Google Scholar
  142. Turk-Browne NB, Scholl BJ, Johnson MK, Chun MM (2010) Implicit perceptual anticipation triggered by statistical learning. J Neurosci 30(33):11177–11187PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Urgolites ZJ, Levy DA, Hopkins RO, Squire LR (2018) Spared perception of object geometry and object components after hippocampal damage. Learn Mem 25(7):330–334PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Võ MLH, Wolfe JM (2015) The role of memory for visual search in scenes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1339(1):72–81Google Scholar
  145. Watanabe K, Lauwereyns J, Hikosaka O (2003) Neural correlates of rewarded and unrewarded eye movements in the primate caudate nucleus. J Neurosci 23(31):10052–10057PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Waugh NC, Norman DA (1965) Primary memory. Psychol Rev 72(2):89–104PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Weaver MD, Lauwereyns J, Theeuwes J (2011) The effect of semantic information on saccade trajectory deviations. Vision Res 51(10):1124–1128PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Wheeler ME, Petersen SE, Buckner RL (2000) Memory’s echo: vivid remembering reactivates sensory-specific cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci 97(20):11125–11129PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Wolfe JM (2001) Asymmetries in visual search: an introduction. Percept Psychophys 63(3):381–389PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Woodman GF, Chun MM (2006) The role of working memory and long-term memory in visual search. Vis Cogn 14(4–8):808–830Google Scholar
  151. Yarbus AL (1967) Eye movements during perception of complex objects. In: Eye movements and vision. Springer, Boston, MA, pp 171–211Google Scholar
  152. Yu RQ, Zhao J (2015) The persistence of the attentional bias to regularities in a changing environment. Atten Percept Psychophys 77(7):2217–2228PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. Zhao J, Al-Aidroos N, Turk-Browne NB (2013) Attention is spontaneously biased toward regularities. Psychol Sci 24(5):667–677PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northeastern UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.University of OregonEugeneUSA

Personalised recommendations