Cure and Control: What Will It Take to Eliminate HCV?

  • Marianne Martinello
  • Behzad Hajarizadeh
  • Jason Grebely
  • Gail V. Matthews
  • Gregory J. DoreEmail author
Part of the Topics in Medicinal Chemistry book series (TMC, volume 32)


In May 2016, the World Health Organization adopted the first global hepatitis strategy, setting the ambitious goal of “elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat” by 2030. HCV-specific targets included a 65% reduction in HCV-related mortality and an 80% reduction in HCV incidence. Globally, an estimated 71 million people were living with chronic HCV infection in 2015. Approximately two million new HCV infections occur annually, with injecting drug use and unsafe health-care practices (including unsterile health-care injection), the predominant modes of HCV transmission.

The development and availability of highly effective direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have revolutionised HCV management and provide the therapeutic tools required to strive for elimination. For HCV treatment as prevention to have greatest impact, HCV testing and treatment coverage must be high, with new diagnoses linked expediently to care and treatment. In 2015, of the 71 million people living with HCV infection, only 20% (14 million) were diagnosed, and of those diagnosed, 13% (1.1 million in 2015, 1.76 million in 2016) had initiated DAA treatment.

This chapter outlines the United Nations and World Health Organization elimination targets; defines the epidemiological concepts of control, elimination and eradication; and discusses the important lessons learnt from control and elimination efforts in other infectious diseases epidemics. The biological and technical feasibility of HCV control and elimination is discussed, followed by related financial, political and social considerations. Examples of national HCV strategies are presented, highlighting the facilitators and barriers to successful implementation of HCV elimination strategies. Control and elimination of HCV infection will require an enormous public health, political and economic commitment. The costs and risks may be high, but so too are the potential benefits.


Diagnosis Direct-acting antiviral Elimination Hepatitis C Prevention Screening Treatment 



The Kirby Institute is funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily represent the position of the Australian government. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors. M.M., B.H., J.G., G.J.D. and G.V.M. are supported through National Health and Medical Research Council Fellowships (M.M and B.H., Early Career Fellowships; J.G. and G.V.M., Career Development Fellowships; G.J.D., Practitioner Fellowship).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding The Kirby Institute is funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. M.M., B.H., J.G., G.J.D. and G.V.M. are supported through National Health and Medical Research Council Fellowships (B.H., Early Career Fellowship; J.G. and G.V.M., Career Development Fellowships; G.J.D., Practitioner Fellowship).

Conflict of Interest

M.M. has received speaker payments from Abbvie. J.G. is a consultant and/or advisor and has received research grants from Abbvie, Cepheid, Gilead and Merck. G.J.D. is an advisory board member and has received honoraria from Abbvie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Janssen, Merck and Roche; research grant funding from Abbvie, Boeringher Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Janssen, Merck, Roche and Vertex; and travel sponsorship from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Janssen, Merck and Roche. G.V.M. has received research funding, advisory board payments and speaker payments from Gilead and research funding and speaker payments from Janssen. B.H. declares no competing interests.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    United Nations General Assembly (2015) Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development 2015Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    WHO (2016) Global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis, 2016–2021. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    WHO (2017) Global hepatitis report 2017. Report No.: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blach S, Zeuzem S, Manns M, Altraif I, Duberg A-S, Muljono DH et al (2017) Global prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus infection in 2015: a modelling study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:161–176Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    GBD 2016 Causes of Death Collaborators (2017) Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of disease study 2016. Lancet 390:1151–1210Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hatzakis A, Chulanov V, Gadano AC, Bergin C, Ben-Ari Z, Mossong J et al (2015) The present and future disease burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections with today’s treatment paradigm – volume 2. J Viral Hepat 22:26–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Razavi H, Waked I, Sarrazin C, Myers RP, Idilman R, Calinas F et al (2014) The present and future disease burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with today’s treatment paradigm. J Viral Hepat 21:34–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sibley A, Han KH, Abourached A, Lesmana LA, Makara M, Jafri W et al (2015) The present and future disease burden of hepatitis C virus infections with today’s treatment paradigm – volume 3. J Viral Hepat 22:21–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gotte M, Feld JJ (2016) Direct-acting antiviral agents for hepatitis C: structural and mechanistic insights. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:338–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hajarizadeh B, Grebely J, Martinello M, Matthews GV, Lloyd AR, Dore GJ (2016) Hepatitis C treatment as prevention: evidence, feasibility, and challenges. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 1:317–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Martin NK, Vickerman P, Dore GJ, Grebely J, Miners A, Cairns J et al (2016) Prioritization of HCV treatment in the direct-acting antiviral era: an economic evaluation. J Hepatol 65:17–25PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Martin NK, Thornton A, Hickman M, Sabin C, Nelson M, Cooke GS et al (2016) Can hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral treatment as prevention reverse the HCV epidemic among men who have sex with men in the United Kingdom? Epidemiological and modeling insights. Clin Infect Dis 62:1072–1080PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    WHO (2018) Progress report on access to hepatitis C treatment: focus on overcoming barriers in low- and middle-income countries, March, 2018. Report No.: WHO/CDS/HIV/18.4, World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Centre for Disease Analysis (2018) Polaris observatory. Cited 1 May 2018
  15. 15.
    Hill AM, Nath S, Simmons B (2017) The road to elimination of hepatitis C: analysis of cures versus new infections in 91 countries. J Virus Eradication 3:117–123Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dowdle WR (1998) The principles of disease elimination and eradication. Bull World Health Organ 76(Suppl 2):22–25PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aylward B, Hennessey KA, Zagaria N, Olive JM, Cochi S (2000) When is a disease eradicable? 100 years of lessons learned. Am J Public Health 90:1515–1520PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jordan AE, Perlman DC, Neurer J, Smith DJ, Des Jarlais DC, Hagan H (2017) Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV+ men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J STD AIDS 28:145–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    van Santen DK, van der Helm JJ, Del Amo J, Meyer L, D’Arminio Monforte A, Price M et al (2017) Lack of decline in hepatitis C virus incidence among HIV-positive men who have sex with men during 1990-2014. J Hepatol 67:255–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Degenhardt L, Peacock A, Colledge S, Leung J, Grebely J, Vickerman P et al (2017) Global prevalence of injecting drug use and sociodemographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV in people who inject drugs: a multistage systematic review. Lancet Glob Health 5:e1192–e1207PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thursz M, Fontanet A (2014) HCV transmission in industrialized countries and resource-constrained areas. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:28–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mohsen A, Bernier A, LeFouler L, Delarocque-Astagneau E, El-Daly M, El-Kafrawy S et al (2015) Hepatitis C virus acquisition among Egyptians: analysis of a 10-year surveillance of acute hepatitis C. Tropical Med Int Health 20:89–97Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Khan AJ, Luby SP, Fikree F, Karim A, Obaid S, Dellawala S et al (2000) Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan. Bull World Health Organ 78:956–963PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pepin J, Abou Chakra CN, Pepin E, Nault V, Valiquette L (2014) Evolution of the global burden of viral infections from unsafe medical injections, 2000-2010. PLoS One 9:e99677PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Midgard H, Weir A, Palmateer N, Lo Re Iii V, Pineda JA, Macías J et al (2016) HCV epidemiology in high-risk groups and the risk of reinfection. J Hepatol 65:S33–S45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zibbell JE, Asher AK, Patel RC, Kupronis B, Iqbal K, Ward JW et al (2018) Increases in acute hepatitis C virus infection related to a growing opioid epidemic and associated injection drug use, United States, 2004 to 2014. Am J Public Health 108:175–181PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liang TJ, Ward JW (2018) Hepatitis C in injection-drug users — a hidden danger of the opioid epidemic. N Engl J Med 378:1169–1171PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clatts MC, Colon-Lopez V, Giang le M, Goldsamt LA (2010) Prevalence and incidence of HCV infection among Vietnam heroin users with recent onset of injection. J Urban Health 87:278–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Spittal PM, Pearce ME, Chavoshi N, Christian WM, Moniruzzaman A, Teegee M et al (2012) The cedar project: high incidence of HCV infections in a longitudinal study of young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities. BMC Public Health 12:632PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Larney S, Kopinski H, Beckwith CG, Zaller ND, Jarlais DD, Hagan H et al (2013) Incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C in prisons and other closed settings: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hepatology 58:1215–1224PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cunningham EB, Hajarizadeh B, Bretana NA, Amin J, Betz-Stablein B, Dore GJ et al (2017) Ongoing incident hepatitis C virus infection among people with a history of injecting drug use in an Australian prison setting, 2005-2014: the HITS-p study. J Viral Hepat 24:733–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Morris MD, Shiboski S, Bruneau J, Hahn JA, Hellard M, Prins M et al (2017) Geographic differences in temporal incidence trends of hepatitis C virus infection among people who inject drugs: the InC3 collaboration. Clin Infect Dis 64:860–869PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Palmateer NE, Taylor A, Goldberg DJ, Munro A, Aitken C, Shepherd SJ et al (2014) Rapid decline in HCV incidence among people who inject drugs associated with national scale-up in coverage of a combination of harm reduction interventions. PLoS One 9:e104515PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lepretre A, Ba I, Lacombe K, Maynart M, Toufik A, Ndiaye O et al (2015) Prevalence and behavioural risks for HIV and HCV infections in a population of drug users of Dakar, Senegal: the ANRS 12243 UDSEN study. J Int AIDS Soc 18:19888PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Eaton JW, Johnson LF, Salomon JA, Bärnighausen T, Bendavid E, Bershteyn A et al (2012) HIV treatment as prevention: systematic comparison of mathematical models of the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy on HIV incidence in South Africa. PLoS Med 9:e1001245PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    HIV Modelling Consortium Treatment as Prevention Editorial Writing Group (2012) Hiv treatment as prevention: models, data, and questions-towards evidence-based decision-making. PLoS Med 9:e1001259Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N et al (2016) Antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. N Engl J Med 375:830–839PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Thigpen MC, Kebaabetswe PM, Paxton LA, Smith DK, Rose CE, Segolodi TM et al (2012) Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis for heterosexual HIV transmission in Botswana. N Engl J Med 367:423–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J et al (2012) Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women. N Engl J Med 367:399–410PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lundgren JD, Babiker AG, Gordin F, Emery S, Grund B, Sharma S et al (2015) Initiation of antiretroviral therapy in early asymptomatic HIV infection. N Engl J Med 373:795–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lazarus JV, Wiktor S, Colombo M, Thursz M (2017) Micro-elimination – a path to global elimination of hepatitis C. J Hepatol 67:665–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    WHO (2016) Global health sector strategy on HIV, 2016–2021: towards ending AIDS. Report No.: WHA69/2016/REC/1, World Health Organisation, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liu Y, Zhong B, Wu ZS, Liang S, Qiu DC, Ma X (2017) Interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous and hilly regions with an integrated strategy: a longitudinal case study in Sichuan, China. Infect Dis Poverty 6:79PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wang LD, Chen HG, Guo JG, Zeng XJ, Hong XL, Xiong JJ et al (2009) A strategy to control transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China. N Engl J Med 360:121–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gardner TJ, Diop OM, Jorba J, Chavan S, Ahmed J, Anand A (2018) Surveillance to track progress toward polio eradication – worldwide, 2016-2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 67:418–423PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bolu O, Nnadi C, Damisa E, Braka F, Siddique A, Archer WR et al (2018) Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication – Nigeria, January–December 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 67:253–256PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Modlin J, Wenger J (2014) Achieving and maintaining polio eradication--new strategies. N Engl J Med 371:1476–1479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Garon JR, Cochi SL, Orenstein WA (2015) The challenge of global poliomyelitis eradication. Infect Dis Clin N Am 29:651–665Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hajarizadeh B, Grebely J, Matthews GV, Martinello M, Dore GJ (2017) Uptake of direct acting antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C in Australia. J Viral Hepat 25:640–648Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Grebely J, Hajarizadeh B, Dore GJ (2017) Direct-acting antiviral agents for HCV infection affecting people who inject drugs. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 14:641–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Martinello M, Hajarizadeh B, Grebely J, Dore GJ, Matthews GV (2017) HCV cure and reinfection among people with HIV/HCV coinfection and people who inject drugs. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 14:110–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pawlotsky J-M, Negro F, Aghemo A, Berenguer M, Dalgard O, Dusheiko G et al (2018) EASL recommendations on treatment of hepatitis C 2018. J Hepatol 69:461–511Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cacoub P, Desbois AC, Comarmond C, Saadoun D (2018) Impact of sustained virological response on the extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C: a meta-analysis. Gut. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Smith-Palmer J, Cerri K, Valentine W (2015) Achieving sustained virologic response in hepatitis C: a systematic review of the clinical, economic and quality of life benefits. BMC Infect Dis 15:19PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cousien A, Tran VC, Deuffic-Burban S, Jauffret-Roustide M, Dhersin JS, Yazdanpanah Y (2016) Hepatitis C treatment as prevention of viral transmission and liver-related morbidity in persons who inject drugs. Hepatology 63:1090–1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hickman M, De Angelis D, Vickerman P, Hutchinson S, Martin NK (2015) Hepatitis C virus treatment as prevention in people who inject drugs: testing the evidence. Curr Opin Infect Dis 28:576–582PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Martin NK, Foster GR, Vilar J, Ryder S, Cramp ME, Gordon F et al (2015) HCV treatment rates and sustained viral response among people who inject drugs in seven UK sites: real world results and modelling of treatment impact. J Viral Hepat 22:399–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Scott N, Stoove M, Wilson DP, Keiser O, El-Hayek C, Doyle J et al (2018) Eliminating hepatitis C virus as a public health threat among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: a multi-modelling approach to understand differences in sexual risk behaviour. J Int AIDS Soc 21PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Salazar-Vizcaya L, Kouyos RD, Zahnd C, Wandeler G, Battegay M, Darling KE et al (2016) Hepatitis C virus transmission among HIV-infected men who have sex with men: modeling the effect of behavioral and treatment interventions. Hepatology 64:1856–1869PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Virlogeux V, Zoulim F, Pugliese P, Poizot-Martin I, Valantin M-A, Cuzin L et al (2017) Modeling HIV-HCV coinfection epidemiology in the direct-acting antiviral era: the road to elimination. BMC Med 15:217PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Durier N, Nguyen C, White LJ (2012) Treatment of hepatitis C as prevention: a modeling case study in Vietnam. PLoS One 7:e34548PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Breban R, Arafa N, Leroy S, Mostafa A, Bakr I, Tondeur L et al (2014) Effect of preventive and curative interventions on hepatitis C virus transmission in Egypt (ANRS 1211): a modelling study. Lancet Glob Health 2:e541–e549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zelenev A, Li J, Mazhnaya A, Basu S, Altice FL (2018) Hepatitis C virus treatment as prevention in an extended network of people who inject drugs in the USA: a modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis 18:215–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fraser H, Martin NK, Brummer-Korvenkontio H, Carrieri P, Dalgard O, Dillon J et al (2018) Model projections on the impact of HCV treatment in the prevention of HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Europe. J Hepatol 68:402–411PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ward Z, Platt L, Sweeney S, Hope VD, Maher L, Hutchinson S et al (2018) Impact of current and scaled-up levels of hepatitis C prevention and treatment interventions for people who inject drugs in three UK settings-what is required to achieve the WHO’s HCV elimination targets? Addiction 113(9):1727–1738PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Scott N, McBryde ES, Thompson A, Doyle JS, Hellard ME (2017) Treatment scale-up to achieve global HCV incidence and mortality elimination targets: a cost-effectiveness model. Gut 66:1507–1515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Scott N, Ólafsson S, Gottfreðsson M, Tyrfingsson T, Rúnarsdóttir V, Hansdottir I et al (2018) Modelling the elimination of hepatitis C as a public health threat in Iceland: a goal attainable by 2020. J Hepatol 68:932–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Martin NK, Vickerman P, Grebely J, Hellard M, Hutchinson SJ, Lima VD et al (2013) Hepatitis C virus treatment for prevention among people who inject drugs: modeling treatment scale-up in the age of direct-acting antivirals. Hepatology 58:1598–1609PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dore GJ, Hajarizadeh B (2018) Elimination of hepatitis C virus in Australia: laying the foundation. Infect Dis Clin N Am 32:269–279Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Elsharkawy A, El-Raziky M, El-Akel W, El-Saeed K, Eletreby R, Hassany M et al (2018) Planning and prioritizing direct-acting antivirals treatment for HCV patients in countries with limited resources: lessons from the Egyptian experience. J Hepatol 68:691–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Boerekamps A, Van den Berk GE, Fanny LN, Leyten EM, Van Kasteren ME, van Eeden A et al (2017) Declining HCV incidence in Dutch HIV positive men who have sex with men after unrestricted access to HCV therapy. Clin Infect Dis 66:1360–1365Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pradat P, Huleux T, Raffi F, Delobel P, Valantin MA, Poizot-Martin I et al (2018) Incidence of new hepatitis C virus infection is still increasing in French MSM living with HIV. AIDS 32:1077–1082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Martinello M, Bartlett S, Dore G, Bopage R, Finlayson R, Baker D et al (2018) Universal access to DAA therapy paves the way for HCV control and elimination among people living with HIV in Australia. J Hepatol 68:S312 [Abstract]Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zimmermann R, Kollan C, Ingiliz P, Mauss S, Schmidt D, Bremer V (2017) Real-world treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection in Germany: analyses from drug prescription data, 2010-2015. J Hepatol 67:15–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Olafsson S, Tyrfingsson T, Runarsdottir V, Bergmann OM, Hansdottir I, Bjornsson ES et al (2018) Treatment as prevention for hepatitis C (TraP Hep C) – a nationwide elimination programme in Iceland using direct-acting antiviral agents. J Intern Med 283:500–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Marshall AD, Cunningham EB, Nielsen S, Aghemo A, Alho H, Backmund M et al (2018) Restrictions for reimbursement of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral drugs for HCV infection in Europe. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:125–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Barua S, Greenwald R, Grebely J, Dore GJ, Swan T, Taylor LE (2015) Restrictions for Medicaid reimbursement of Sofosbuvir for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States. Ann Intern Med 163:215–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    AASLD-IDSA (2016) Recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. Cited 30 Dec 2016
  79. 79.
    Graham J (2016) Medicaid, private insurers begin to lift curbs on pricey hepatitis C drugs. Cited 30 Jul 2016
  80. 80.
    Aleccia J (2016) Judge orders Washington Medicaid to provide lifesaving hepatitis C drugs for all. Cited 4 Jul 2016
  81. 81.
    Jones S (2016) Jones introduces legislation to treat hepatitis C sooner.
  82. 82.
    Alfaleh FZ, Nugrahini N, Matičič M, Tolmane I, Alzaabi M, Hajarizadeh B et al (2015) Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus infection disease burden – volume 3. J Viral Hepat 22:42–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wedemeyer H, Duberg AS, Buti M, Rosenberg WM, Frankova S, Esmat G et al (2014) Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden. J Viral Hepat 21:60–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Durham DP, Skrip LA, Bruce RD, Vilarinho S, Elbasha EH, Galvani AP et al (2016) The impact of enhanced screening and treatment on Hepatitis C in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 62:298–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gower E, Estes C, Blach S, Razavi-Shearer K, Razavi H (2014) Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol 61:S45–S57Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Solomon SS, McFall AM, Lucas GM, Srikrishnan AK, Kumar MS, Anand S et al (2017) Respondent-driven sampling for identification of HIV- and HCV-infected people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men in India: a cross-sectional, community-based analysis. PLoS Med 14:e1002460PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chevaliez S, Pawlotsky JM (2009) How to use virological tools for optimal management of chronic hepatitis C. Liver Int 29(Suppl 1):9–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Seigneres B, Descamps F, Croise R, Barlet V, Bouvier-Alias M, Chevaliez S et al (2016) Multicenter clinical evaluation of the new third generation assay for detection of antibodies against hepatitis C virus on the VIDAS(®) system. J Clin Virol 78:20–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gourlain K, Soulier A, Pellegrin B, Bouvier-Alias M, Hezode C, Darthuy F et al (2005) Dynamic range of hepatitis C virus RNA quantification with the Cobas Ampliprep-Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor v2.0 assay. J Clin Microbiol 43:1669–1673PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Chevaliez S, Bouvier-Alias M, Pawlotsky JM (2009) Performance of the Abbott real-time PCR assay using m2000sp and m2000rt for hepatitis C virus RNA quantification. J Clin Microbiol 47:1726–1732PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Chevaliez S, Dubernet F, Dauvillier C, Hezode C, Pawlotsky JM (2017) The new aptima HCV quant Dx real-time TMA assay accurately quantifies hepatitis C virus genotype 1-6 RNA. J Clin Virol 91:5–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    McHugh MP, Wu AHB, Chevaliez S, Pawlotsky JM, Hallin M, Templeton KE (2017) Multicenter evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert hepatitis C virus viral load assay. J Clin Microbiol 55:1550–1556PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pas S, Molenkamp R, Schinkel J, Rebers S, Copra C, Seven-Deniz S et al (2013) Performance evaluation of the new Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV test, version 2.0, for detection and quantification of hepatitis C virus RNA. J Clin Microbiol 51:238–242PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Morgan JR, Servidone M, Easterbrook P, Linas BP (2017) Economic evaluation of HCV testing approaches in low and middle income countries. BMC Infect Dis 17:697PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Yehia BR, Schranz AJ, Umscheid CA, Lo Re 3rd. V (2014) The treatment cascade for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 9:e101554PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Patel RC, Vellozzi C, Smith BD (2016) Results of hepatitis C birth-cohort testing and linkage to care in selected U.S. sites, 2012-2014. Public Health Rep 131(Suppl 2):12–19PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mera J, Vellozzi C, Hariri S, Carabin H, Drevets DA, Miller A et al (2016) Identification and clinical management of persons with chronic hepatitis C virus infection – Cherokee nation, 2012–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 65:461–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Snow K, Scott N, Clothier HJ, MacLachlan JH, Cowie B (2017) Limited provision of diagnostic services to Victorians living with hepatitis C antibodies, 2001-2012: a multi-level modelling analysis. Aust N Z J Public Health 41(2):193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Janjua NZ, Kuo M, Yu A, Alvarez M, Wong S, Cook D et al (2016) The population level cascade of care for hepatitis C in British Columbia, Canada: the BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC). EBioMedicine 12:189–195PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Iversen J, Grebely J, Catlett B, Cunningham P, Dore GJ, Maher L (2017) Estimating the cascade of hepatitis C testing, care and treatment among people who inject drugs in Australia. Int J Drug Policy 47:77–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Cox J, Graves L, Marks E, Tremblay C, Stephenson R, Lambert-Lanning A et al (2011) Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours associated with the provision of hepatitis C care by Canadian family physicians. J Viral Hepat 18:e332–e340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Gupta L, Shah S, Ward JE (2006) Educational and health service needs of Australian general practitioners in managing hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 21:694–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Shehab TM, Sonnad SS, Lok AS (2001) Management of hepatitis C patients by primary care physicians in the USA: results of a national survey. J Viral Hepat 8:377–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Marshall AD, Micallef M, Erratt A, Telenta J, Treloar C, Everingham H et al (2015) Liver disease knowledge and acceptability of non-invasive liver fibrosis assessment among people who inject drugs in the drug and alcohol setting: the LiveRLife Study. Int J Drug Policy 26:984–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Treloar C, Hull P, Dore GJ, Grebely J (2012) Knowledge and barriers associated with assessment and treatment for hepatitis C virus infection among people who inject drugs. Drug Alcohol Rev 31:918–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sena AC, Willis SJ, Hilton A, Anderson A, Wohl DA, Hurt CB et al (2016) Efforts at the frontlines: implementing a hepatitis C testing and linkage-to-care program at the local public health level. Public Health Rep 131(Suppl 2):57–64PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Meyer JP, Moghimi Y, Marcus R, Lim JK, Litwin AH, Altice FL (2015) Evidence-based interventions to enhance assessment, treatment, and adherence in the chronic Hepatitis C care continuum. Int J Drug Policy 26:922–935PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zhou K, Fitzpatrick T, Walsh N, Kim JY, Chou R, Lackey M et al (2016) Interventions to optimise the care continuum for chronic viral hepatitis: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Lancet Infect Dis 16:1409–1422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Litwin AH, Smith BD, Drainoni ML, McKee D, Gifford AL, Koppelman E et al (2012) Primary care-based interventions are associated with increases in hepatitis C virus testing for patients at risk. Dig Liver Dis 44:497–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Federman AD, Kil N, Kannry J, Andreopolous E, Toribio W, Lyons J et al (2017) An electronic health record-based intervention to promote hepatitis C virus testing among adults born between 1945 and 1965: a cluster-randomized trial. Med Care 55:590–597PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Harris KA, Arnsten JH, Litwin AH (2010) Successful integration of hepatitis C evaluation and treatment services with methadone maintenance. J Addict Med 4:20–26PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lindenburg CEA, Lambers FAE, Urbanus AT, Schinkel J, Jansen PLM, Krol A et al (2011) Hepatitis C testing and treatment among active drug users in Amsterdam: results from the DUTCH-C project. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 23:23–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Moessner BK, Jorgensen TR, Skamling M, Vyberg M, Junker P, Pedersen C et al (2011) Outreach screening of drug users for cirrhosis with transient elastography. Addiction 106:970–976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Foucher J, Reiller B, Jullien V, Leal F, di Cesare ES, Merrouche W et al (2009) FibroScan used in street-based outreach for drug users is useful for hepatitis C virus screening and management: a prospective study. J Viral Hepat 16:121–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Trooskin SB, Poceta J, Towey CM, Yolken A, Rose JS, Luqman NL et al (2015) Results from a geographically focused, community-based HCV screening, linkage-to-care and patient navigation program. J Gen Intern Med 30:950–957PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Falade-Nwulia O, Mehta SH, Lasola J, Latkin C, Niculescu A, O’Connor C et al (2016) Public health clinic-based hepatitis C testing and linkage to care in baltimore. J Viral Hepat 23:366–374PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hickman M, McDonald T, Judd A, Nichols T, Hope V, Skidmore S et al (2008) Increasing the uptake of hepatitis C virus testing among injecting drug users in specialist drug treatment and prison settings by using dried blood spots for diagnostic testing: a cluster randomized controlled trial. J Viral Hepat 15:250–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Morano JP, Zelenev A, Lombard A, Marcus R, Gibson BA, Altice FL (2014) Strategies for hepatitis C testing and linkage to care for vulnerable populations: point-of-care and standard HCV testing in a mobile medical clinic. J Community Health 39:922–934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sahajian F, Bailly F, Vanhems P, Fantino B, Vannier-Nitenberg C, Fabry J et al (2011) A randomized trial of viral hepatitis prevention among underprivileged people in the Lyon area of France. J Public Health (Oxf) 33:182–192Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Bottero J, Boyd A, Gozlan J, Carrat F, Nau J, Pauti MD et al (2015) Simultaneous human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis B-hepatitis C point-of-care tests improve outcomes in linkage-to-care: results of a randomized control trial in persons without healthcare coverage. Open Forum Infect Dis 2:ofv162PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Coats JT, Dillon JF (2015) The effect of introducing point-of-care or dried blood spot analysis on the uptake of hepatitis C virus testing in high-risk populations: a systematic review of the literature. Int J Drug Policy 26:1050–1055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Beckwith CG, Kurth AE, Bazerman LB, Patry EJ, Cates A, Tran L et al (2016) A pilot study of rapid hepatitis C virus testing in the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. J Public Health 38:130–137Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    McAllister G, Innes H, McLeod A, Dillon JF, Hayes PC, Fox R et al (2014) Uptake of hepatitis C specialist services and treatment following diagnosis by dried blood spot in Scotland. J Clin Virol 61:359–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Schito M, Peter TF, Cavanaugh S, Piatek AS, Young GJ, Alexander H et al (2012) Opportunities and challenges for cost-efficient implementation of new point-of-care diagnostics for HIV and tuberculosis. J Infect Dis 205(Suppl 2):S169–S180PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    MSF (2017) Putting HIV and HCV to the test: a product guide for point-of-care CD4 tests and laboratory-based point-of-care HIV and HCV viral load tests. Médecins Sans Frontieres, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Drain PK, Hyle EP, Noubary F, Freedberg KA, Wilson D, Bishai WR et al (2014) Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings. Lancet Infect Dis 14:239–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Gliddon HD, Peeling RW, Kamb ML, Toskin I, Wi TE, Taylor MM (2017) A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the performance and operational characteristics of dual point-of-care tests for HIV and syphilis. Sex Transm Infect 93:S3–S15PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Drobniewski F, Cooke M, Jordan J, Casali N, Mugwagwa T, Broda A et al (2015) Systematic review, meta-analysis and economic modelling of molecular diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis. Health Technol Assess 19:1–188, vii–viiiPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Causer LM, Hengel B, Natoli L, Tangey A, Badman SG, Tabrizi SN et al (2015) A field evaluation of a new molecular-based point-of-care test for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in remote Aboriginal health services in Australia. Sex Health 12:27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Natoli L, Maher L, Shephard M, Hengel B, Tangey A, Badman SG et al (2014) Point-of-care testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea: implications for clinical practice. PLoS One 9:e100518PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Causer LM, Kaldor JM, Conway DP, Leslie DE, Denham I, Karapanagiotidis T et al (2015) An evaluation of a novel dual treponemal/nontreponemal point-of-care test for syphilis as a tool to distinguish active from past treated infection. Clin Infect Dis 61:184–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Drobnik A, Judd C, Banach D, Egger J, Konty K, Rude E (2011) Public health implications of rapid hepatitis C screening with an oral swab for community-based organizations serving high-risk populations. Am J Public Health 101:2151–2155PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Smith BD, Drobeniuc J, Jewett A, Branson BM, Garfein RS, Teshale E et al (2011) Evaluation of three rapid screening assays for detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus. J Infect Dis 204:825–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Shivkumar S, Peeling R, Jafari Y, Joseph L, Pant PN (2012) Accuracy of rapid and point-of-care screening tests for hepatitis C: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 157:558–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Wong VW, Wong GL, Chim AM, Cheng TF, Cheung SW, Lai CM et al (2014) Targeted hepatitis C screening among ex-injection drug users in the community. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 29:116–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Poiteau L, Soulier A, Rosa I, Roudot-Thoraval F, Hezode C, Pawlotsky JM et al (2016) Performance of rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in whole blood collected on dried blood spots. J Viral Hepat 23:399–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gupta E, Agarwala P, Kumar G, Maiwall R, Sarin SK (2017) Point -of -care testing (POCT) in molecular diagnostics: performance evaluation of GeneXpert HCV RNA test in diagnosing and monitoring of HCV infection. J Clin Virol 88:46–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Grebely J, Lamoury FMJ, Hajarizadeh B, Mowat Y, Marshall AD, Bajis S et al (2017) Evaluation of the Xpert HCV Viral Load point-of-care assay from venepuncture-collected and finger-stick capillary whole-blood samples: a cohort study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:514–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Lamoury FMJ, Bajis S, Hajarizadeh B, Marshall AD, Martinello M, Ivanova E et al (2018) Evaluation of the Xpert® HCV Viral Load Fingerstick point-of-care assay. J Infect Dis 217:1889–1896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Freiman JM, Tran TM, Schumacher SG, White LF, Ongarello S, Cohn J et al (2016) Hepatitis C core antigen testing for diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 165:345–355PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Duchesne L, Njouom R, Lissock F, Tamko-Mella GF, Rallier S, Poiteau L et al (2017) HCV Ag quantification as a one-step procedure in diagnosing chronic hepatitis C infection in Cameroon: the ANRS 12336 study. J Int AIDS Soc 20:1–8Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lamoury FMJ, Soker A, Martinez D, Hajarizadeh B, Cunningham EB, Cunningham P et al (2017) Hepatitis C virus core antigen: a simplified treatment monitoring tool, including for post-treatment relapse. J Clin Virol 92:32–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Moyer VA, Force USPST (2013) Screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 159:349–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    WHO (2017) WHO guidelines on hepatitis B and C testing. World Health Organisation, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bottero J, Brouard C, Roudot-Thoraval F, Deuffic-Burban S, Hofliger P, Abergel A et al (2016) 2014 French guidelines for hepatitis B and C screening: a combined targeted and mass testing strategy of chronic viruses namely HBV, HCV and HIV. Liver Int 36:1442–1449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Barocas JA, Tasillo A, Eftekhari Yazdi G, Wang J, Vellozzi C, Hariri S et al (2018) Population level outcomes and cost-effectiveness of expanding the recommendation for age-based hepatitis C testing in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 67(4):549–556PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Grebely J, Robaeys G, Bruggmann P, Aghemo A, Backmund M, Bruneau J et al (2015) Recommendations for the management of hepatitis C virus infection among people who inject drugs. Int J Drug Policy 26:1028–1038PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    European AIDS Clinical Society (2017) EACS guidelines version 9.0 2017Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Grebely J, Applegate TL, Cunningham P, Feld JJ (2017) Hepatitis C point-of-care diagnostics: in search of a single visit diagnosis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 17:1109–1115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Grebely J, Prins M, Hellard M, Cox AL, Osburn WO, Lauer G et al (2012) Hepatitis C virus clearance, reinfection, and persistence, with insights from studies of injecting drug users: towards a vaccine. Lancet Infect Dis 12:408–414PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    MacArthur GJ, van Velzen E, Palmateer N, Kimber J, Pharris A, Hope V et al (2014) Interventions to prevent HIV and Hepatitis C in people who inject drugs: a review of reviews to assess evidence of effectiveness. Int J Drug Policy 25:34–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Hagan H, Pouget ER, Des Jarlais DC (2011) A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions to prevent hepatitis C virus infection in people who inject drugs. J Infect Dis 204:74–83PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Platt L, Minozzi S, Reed J, Vickerman P, Hagan H, French C et al (2018) Needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing HCV transmission among people who inject drugs: findings from a Cochrane review and meta-analysis. Addiction 113:545–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Kwon JA, Anderson J, Kerr CC, Thein HH, Zhang L, Iversen J et al (2012) Estimating the cost-effectiveness of needle-syringe programs in Australia. AIDS (London, England) 26:2201–2210Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Larney S, Peacock A, Leung J, Colledge S, Hickman M, Vickerman P et al (2017) Global, regional, and country-level coverage of interventions to prevent and manage HIV and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs: a systematic review. Lancet Glob Health 5:e1208–e1220PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Bruneau J, Zang G, Abrahamowicz M, Jutras-Aswad D, Daniel M, Roy E (2014) Sustained drug use changes after hepatitis C screening and counseling among recently infected persons who inject drugs: a longitudinal study. Clin Infect Dis 58:755–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Roux P, Le Gall JM, Debrus M, Protopopescu C, Ndiaye K, Demoulin B et al (2016) Innovative community-based educational face-to-face intervention to reduce HIV, hepatitis C virus and other blood-borne infectious risks in difficult-to-reach people who inject drugs: results from the ANRS-AERLI intervention study. Addiction 111:94–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Grebely J, Dore GJ, Morin S, Rockstroh JK, Klein MB (2017) Elimination of HCV as a public health concern among people who inject drugs by 2030 – what will it take to get there? J Int AIDS Soc 20:22146PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    DeBeck K, Cheng T, Montaner JS, Beyrer C, Elliott R, Sherman S et al (2017) HIV and the criminalisation of drug use among people who inject drugs: a systematic review. Lancet HIV 4:e357–e374PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Hagan H, Jordan AE, Neurer J, Cleland CM (2015) Incidence of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. AIDS (London, England) 29:2335–2345Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Platt L, Easterbrook P, Gower E, McDonald B, Sabin K, McGowan C et al (2016) Prevalence and burden of HCV co-infection in people living with HIV: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 16:797–808PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Breskin A, Drobnik A, Pathela P, Chan C, Braunstein S, Bornschlegel K et al (2015) Factors associated with hepatitis C infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men with no reported injection drug use in New York City, 2000-2010. Sex Transm Dis 42:382–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Apers L, Vanden Berghe W, De Wit S, Kabeya K, Callens S, Buyze J et al (2015) Risk factors for HCV acquisition among HIV-positive MSM in Belgium. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 68:585–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Khosropour CM, Dombrowski JC, Swanson F, Kerani RP, Katz DA, Barbee LA et al (2016) Trends in serosorting and the association with HIV/STI risk over time among men who have sex with men (MSM). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 72:189–197PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Velter A, Saboni L, Sommen C, Bernillon P, Bajos N, Semaille C (2015) Sexual and prevention practices in men who have sex with men in the era of combination HIV prevention: results from the Presse Gays et Lesbiennes survey, France, 2011. Euro Surveill 20:21090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Melendez-Torres GJ, Bourne A (2016) Illicit drug use and its association with sexual risk behaviour among MSM: more questions than answers? Curr Opin Infect Dis 29:58–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Gilbart VL, Simms I, Jenkins C, Furegato M, Gobin M, Oliver I et al (2015) Sex, drugs and smart phone applications: findings from semistructured interviews with men who have sex with men diagnosed with Shigella flexneri 3a in England and Wales. Sex Transm Infect 91:598–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Hoornenborg E, Achterbergh RCA, Schim Van Der Loeff MF, Davidovich U, Hogewoning A, Vries HJC et al (2017) Men who have sex with men starting pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are at risk of HCV infection: evidence from the Amsterdam PrEP study. AIDS (London, England) 31(11):1603–1610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Ward C, Lee V (2014) Should we offer routine hepatitis C antibody testing in men who have sex with men? J Int AIDS Soc 17:19591PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Yaphe S, Bozinoff N, Kyle R, Shivkumar S, Pai NP, Klein M (2012) Incidence of acute hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men with and without HIV infection: a systematic review. Sex Transm Infect 88:558–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Volk JE, Marcus JL, Phengrasamy T, Hare CB (2015) Incident Hepatitis C virus infections among users of HIV preexposure prophylaxis in a clinical practice setting. Clin Infect Dis 60:1728–1729PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    McFaul K, Maghlaoui A, Nzuruba M, Farnworth S, Foxton M, Anderson M et al (2015) Acute hepatitis C infection in HIV-negative men who have sex with men. J Viral Hepat 22:535–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Naggie S, Holland DP, Sulkowski MS, Thomas DL (2017) Hepatitis C virus postexposure prophylaxis in the healthcare worker: why direct-acting antivirals don’t change a thing. Clin Infect Dis 64:92–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Simmons B, Saleem J, Hill A, Riley RD, Cooke GS (2016) Risk of late relapse or reinfection with hepatitis C virus after achieving a sustained virological response: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 62:683–694PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Martinello M, Grebely J, Petoumenos K, Gane E, Hellard M, Shaw D et al (2017) HCV reinfection incidence among individuals treated for recent infection. J Viral Hepat 24:359–370PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Young J, Rossi C, Gill J, Walmsley S, Cooper C, Cox J et al (2017) Risk factors for hepatitis C virus reinfection after sustained virologic response in patients coinfected with HIV. Clin Infect Dis 64:1154–1162PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Midgard H, Bjoro B, Maeland A, Konopski Z, Kileng H, Damas JK et al (2016) Hepatitis C reinfection after sustained virological response. J Hepatol 64:1020–1026PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Aspinall EJ, Corson S, Doyle JS, Grebely J, Hutchinson SJ, Dore GJ et al (2013) Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection among people who are actively injecting drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 57(Suppl 2):S80–S89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Pineda JA, Nunez-Torres R, Tellez F, Mancebo M, Garcia F, Merchante N et al (2015) Hepatitis C virus reinfection after sustained virological response in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Infect 71:571–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Weir A, McLeod A, Innes H, Valerio H, Aspinall EJ, Goldberg DJ et al (2016) Hepatitis C reinfection following treatment induced viral clearance among people who have injected drugs. Drug Alcohol Depend 165:53–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Vickerman P, Grebely J, Dore GJ, Sacks-Davis R, Page K, Thomas DL et al (2012) The more you look, the more you find: effects of hepatitis C virus testing interval on reinfection incidence and clearance and implications for future vaccine study design. J Infect Dis 205:1342–1350PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Hellard M, Rolls DA, Sacks-Davis R, Robins G, Pattison P, Higgs P et al (2014) The impact of injecting networks on hepatitis C transmission and treatment in people who inject drugs. Hepatology 60:1861–1870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Islam N, Krajden M, Shoveller J, Gustafson P, Gilbert M, Buxton JA et al (2017) Incidence, risk factors, and prevention of hepatitis C reinfection: a population-based cohort study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:200–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Martinello M, Hajarizadeh B, Grebely J, Dore GJ, Matthews GV (2018) Management of acute HCV infection in the era of direct-acting antiviral therapy. Nat Rev. Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:412–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Su Y, Norris JL, Zang C, Peng Z, Wang N (2013) Incidence of hepatitis C virus infection in patients on hemodialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hemodial Int 17:532–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Saune K, Kamar N, Miedouge M, Weclawiak H, Dubois M, Izopet J et al (2011) Decreased prevalence and incidence of HCV markers in haemodialysis units: a multicentric French survey. Nephrol Dial Transplant 26:2309–2316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Duarte G, Williams CJ, Vasconcelos P, Nogueira P (2018) Capacity to report on mortality attributable to chronic hepatitis B and C infections by member states: an exercise to monitor progress towards viral hepatitis elimination. J Viral Hepat 25:878–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Cousien A, Tran VC, Deuffic-Burban S, Jauffret-Roustide M, Mabileau G, Dhersin JS et al (2018) Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions targeting harm reduction and chronic hepatitis C cascade of care in people who inject drugs; the case of France. J Viral Hepat 25(10):1197–1207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    He T, Lopez-Olivo MA, Hur C, Chhatwal J (2017) Systematic review: cost-effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals for treatment of hepatitis C genotypes 2-6. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 46:711–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Chhatwal J, He T, Hur C, Lopez-Olivo MA (2017) Direct-acting antiviral agents for patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection are cost-saving. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:827–837.e828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Ayoub HH, Abu-Raddad LJ (2017) Impact of treatment on hepatitis C virus transmission and incidence in Egypt: a case for treatment as prevention. J Viral Hepat 24:486–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Aggarwal R, Chen Q, Goel A, Seguy N, Pendse R, Ayer T et al (2017) Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C treatment using generic direct-acting antivirals available in India. PLoS One 12:e0176503PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Estes C, Abdel-Kareem M, Abdel-Razek W, Abdel-Sameea E, Abuzeid M, Gomaa A et al (2015) Economic burden of hepatitis C in Egypt: the future impact of highly effective therapies. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 42:696–706PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Zahnd C, Salazar-Vizcaya L, Dufour JF, Mullhaupt B, Wandeler G, Kouyos R et al (2016) Modelling the impact of deferring HCV treatment on liver-related complications in HIV coinfected men who have sex with men. J Hepatol 65:26–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Scott N, Doyle JS, Wilson DP, Wade A, Howell J, Pedrana A et al (2017) Reaching hepatitis C virus elimination targets requires health system interventions to enhance the care cascade. Int J Drug Policy 47:107–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Bruggmann P, Litwin AH (2013) Models of care for the management of hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs: one size does not fit all. Clin Infect Dis 57(Suppl 2):S56–S61PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Asher AK, Portillo CJ, Cooper BA, Dawson-Rose C, Vlahov D, Page KA (2016) Clinicians’ views of hepatitis C virus treatment candidacy with direct-acting antiviral regimens for people who inject drugs. Subst Use Misuse 51:1218–1223PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Nasrullah M, Sergeenko D, Gamkrelidze A, Averhoff F (2017) HCV elimination – lessons learned from a small Eurasian country, Georgia. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 14:447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Nasrullah M, Sergeenko D, Gvinjilia L, Gamkrelidze A, Tsertsvadze T, Butsashvili M et al (2017) The role of screening and treatment in national progress toward hepatitis C elimination – Georgia, 2015–2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 66:773–776PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Safreed-Harmon K, Hetherington KL, Aleman S, Alho H, Dalgard O, Frisch T et al (2018) Policy responses to hepatitis C in the Nordic countries: gaps and discrepant reporting in the Hep-Nordic study. PLoS One 13:e0190146PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    The Kirby Institute (2016) Hepatitis B and C in Australia annual surveillance report supplement 2016. The Kirby Institute, UNSW Australia, Sydney, p 2052Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Baker D, Alavi M, Erratt A, Hill S, Balcomb A, Hallinan R et al (2014) Delivery of treatment for hepatitis C virus infection in the primary care setting. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 26:1003–1009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing (2000) The national hepatitis C strategy 1999–2000 to 2003–2004. Cited 2 Mar 2018
  204. 204.
    Mitruka K, Tsertsvadze T, Butsashvili M, Gamkrelidze A, Sabelashvili P, Adamia E et al (2015) Launch of a nationwide hepatitis c elimination program — Georgia, April 2015. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 64:753–757Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG  2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marianne Martinello
    • 1
  • Behzad Hajarizadeh
    • 1
  • Jason Grebely
    • 1
  • Gail V. Matthews
    • 1
  • Gregory J. Dore
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.The Kirby Institute, University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations