pp 1-6 | Cite as

Concluding Remarks and Research Needs

  • J. J. Ortega-CalvoEmail author
  • John R. Parsons
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series


A key motivation for this handbook arose from the different perceptions of scientists and regulators of the scientific advances made during the last 30 years in the field of bioavailability of organic chemicals in soil and sediment. This last chapter provides a distillation of the general messages extracted from the individual chapters from this handbook, by answering the following questions: (1) Is bioavailability science ready for use in regulation? (2) How should bioavailability be measured? And (3) how should it be implemented? We conclude the chapter with the research needs covering the knowledge gaps that still remain after this effort, focusing on the methodologies for measuring bioavailability, the environmental risks of non-bioavailable compounds, and the innovative remediation of contaminated waters, sediments, and soils.


Communication Methods Regulation Remediation Risk 


  1. 1.
    Ortega-Calvo J-J, Harmsen J, Parsons JR, Semple KT, Aitken MD, Ajao C, Eadsforth C, Galay-Burgos M, Naidu R, Oliver R, Peijnenburg WJGM, Roembke J, Streck G, Versonnen B (2015) From bioavailability science to regulation of organic chemicals. Environ Sci Technol 49(17):10255–10264Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ISO/TS16751 (2018) Soil quality – environmental availability of non-polar organic compounds – determination of the potential bioavailable fraction using a strong adsorbent or complexing agent. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schaffer A, Kastner M, Trapp S (2018) A unified approach for including non-extractable residues (NER) of chemicals and pesticides in the assessment of persistence. Environ Sci Eur 30(1):51Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burkhard LP, Mount DR, Burgess RM (2017) Developing sediment remediation goals at superfund sites based on pore water for the protection of benthic organisms from direct toxicity to nonionic organic contaminants EPA/600/R 15/289. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development: Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC)SevilleSpain
  2. 2.Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem DynamicsUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations