pp 1-9 | Cite as

Conclusions and Future Trends

  • E. EljarratEmail author
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series


This chapter summarizes the main conclusions drawn from the 11 different chapters of this book, as well as the future trends in the field of research on pyrethroid insecticides. The chapter is divided into five sections. First of all, we discuss the different pyrethroid insecticides produced and used regularly, their various applications, and their physicochemical properties, with special attention to their stereochemistry, evaluating the different isomers and enantiomers for each pyrethroid. After that, we present the developments in analytical methodologies for pyrethroid determinations in environmental and food matrices, as well as the analysis of urinary metabolites. Then, the environmental fate in aquatic ecosystems, with special attention to salmon industry, was presented, as well as pyrethroid presence in other environmental compartments such as soil or air. Bioavailabilty and bioaccumulation in terrestrial and aquatic wildlife are also discussed. And finally, the human exposure to pyrethroid insecticides through inhalation and food ingestion and the risk associated to the long-term exposure are summarized.


Analytical approaches Bioaccumulation Food intake Human exposure Indoor and outdoor inhalation Pyrethroid metabolites Risk assessment 



This research study was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Transición Ecológica y Reto Demográfico through the project APAN (Ref. 2392/2017) and by the Generalitat de Catalunya (Consolidated Research Group: Water and Soil Quality unit 2017 SGR 1404).


  1. 1.
    Oros DR, Werner I (2005) Pyrethroid insecticides: an analysis of use patterns, distributions, potential toxicity and fate in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Central Valley. White paper for the interagency ecological program, San Francisco Estuary Institute, OaklandGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gong DC (2013) Pyrethroids pesticides residues and their behavior in a multimedium environment of Liangtan River Basin. Master thesis, Chongqing University, ChongqingGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Werner I, Young TM (2018) Pyrethroid insecticides – exposure and impacts in the aquatic environment. Encyclopedia of the anthropocene, pp 119–126.
  4. 4.
    Werner I, Moran K (2008) Effects of pyrethroid insecticides on aquatic organisms. In: Synthetic pyrethroids. ACS symposium series, pp 310–334.
  5. 5.
    Hasenbein S, Connon RE, Lawler SP, Geist J (2015) A comparison of the sublethal and lethal toxicity of four pesticides in Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:11327. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li H, Cheng F, Wei Y, Lydy MJ, You J (2017) Global occurrence of pyrethroid insecticides in sediment and the associated toxicological effects on benthic invertebrates: an overview. J Hazard Mater 324:258–271. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ingham VA, Anthousi A, Douris V (2019) A sensory appendage protein protects malaria vectors from pyrethroids. Nature 577:376. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alonso MB, Feo ML, Corcellas C, Vidal LG, Bertozzi CP, Marigo J, Secchi ER, Bassoi M, Azevedo A, Dorneles PR, Torres JPM, Lailson-Brito J, Malm O, Eljarrat E, Barceló D (2012) Pyrethroids: a new threat to marine mammals? Environ Int 47:99–106. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zartarian V, Xue J, Glen G, Smith L, Tulve N, Tornero-Velez R (2012) Quantifying children’s aggregate (dietary and residential) exposure and dose to permethrin: application and evaluation of epa's probabilistic sheds-multimedia model. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 22:267–273Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burns CJ, Pastoor TP (2018) Pyrethroid epidemiology: a quality-based review. Crit Rev Toxicol 48:297–311. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ling C, Liew Z, von Ehrenstein OS, Heck JE, Park AS, Cui X, Cockburn M, Wu J, Ritz B (2018) Prenatal exposure to ambient pesticides and preterm birth and term low birthweight in agricultural regions of California. Toxics 6:41Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen S, Gu S, Wang Y, Yao YL, Wang GQ, Jin Y, Wu YM (2016) Exposure to pyrethroid pesticides and the risk of childhood brain tumors in East China. Environ Pollut 218:1128–1134. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ding GD, Shi R, Gao Y, Zhang Y, Kamijima M, Sakai K, Wang GQ, Feng C, Tian Y (2012) Pyrethroid pesticide exposure and risk of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia in Shanghai. Environ Sci Technol 46:13480–13487. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Han JJ, Zhou LQ, Luo M, Liang YR, Zhao WT, Wang P, Zhou ZQ, Liu DH (2017) Nonoccupational exposure to pyrethroids and risk of coronary heart disease in the Chinese population. Environ Sci Technol 51:664–670. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental ChemistryIDAEA, CSICBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations