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pp 1-9 | Cite as

Conclusions and Future Trends

  • E. EljarratEmail author
Chapter
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Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series

Abstract

This chapter summarizes the main conclusions drawn from the 11 different chapters of this book, as well as the future trends in the field of research on pyrethroid insecticides. The chapter is divided into five sections. First of all, we discuss the different pyrethroid insecticides produced and used regularly, their various applications, and their physicochemical properties, with special attention to their stereochemistry, evaluating the different isomers and enantiomers for each pyrethroid. After that, we present the developments in analytical methodologies for pyrethroid determinations in environmental and food matrices, as well as the analysis of urinary metabolites. Then, the environmental fate in aquatic ecosystems, with special attention to salmon industry, was presented, as well as pyrethroid presence in other environmental compartments such as soil or air. Bioavailabilty and bioaccumulation in terrestrial and aquatic wildlife are also discussed. And finally, the human exposure to pyrethroid insecticides through inhalation and food ingestion and the risk associated to the long-term exposure are summarized.

Keywords

Analytical approaches Bioaccumulation Food intake Human exposure Indoor and outdoor inhalation Pyrethroid metabolites Risk assessment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research study was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Transición Ecológica y Reto Demográfico through the project APAN (Ref. 2392/2017) and by the Generalitat de Catalunya (Consolidated Research Group: Water and Soil Quality unit 2017 SGR 1404).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental ChemistryIDAEA, CSICBarcelonaSpain

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