Impacts of Pesticides on Soil and Water Resources in Algeria

Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 97)


Algeria, with its natural resource factors, is a significant country in Africa and the world and is seeking a strong development in the demographic and economic scale. Algeria, with an area of 2.4 million km2, is North Africa’s biggest nation. Sahara occupies most of this surface, unfit for farming, but rich in mineral resources. Over 90% of the population lives in the north, including a coastal land along the Mediterranean Sea, plains, hills, and highlands. In the north, the annual quantity of rain ranges from 300 to 1,000 mm. The annual amount of rain in the Sahara and the Saharan Atlas in the south is less than 100 mm. Algeria has 17 main hydrographic basins and shares with Tunisia the basin of Medjerda and with Morocco the basins of Tafna, Draa, Guir, and Daoura. Agriculture continues to play a dominant role in the economy of the country. Twenty years ago, agriculture accounted for more than 75% of the active population in the south. This has now dropped to about 20%. It is another tale in the country’s south. The population was only 0.9 million in 1967, but by 1987 it increased to nearly two million, and by 2010, it is over three million, and in 2019, it is around 43 million. About 40% of the inhabitants now rely for their livelihood on agriculture. The Algerian authority was facing serious problems in managing its soil and water resources. This chapter offers an overview of the present issues in pesticides that harm animal and human health and cause natural resource scarcity and environmental pollution by accumulating in soil and leaching into water bodies. Naturally, the current situation in Algeria is exacerbated by two important constraints:
  1. 1.

    Groundwater and surface water pollution, which domestic, industrial, and agricultural waste far exceeds the ability of sewage systems, significantly reducing the quantity of treated water that can be used.

  2. 2.

    Risk of sustainable development in relation to soil and water pollution, which severe issues arose in groundwater evaluated samples that exceed natural resource renewal boundaries and need to tap into nonrenewable reserves.


This chapter also highlights the urgent need to develop new branches of chemistry that are less dangerous to human health and the environment. Therefore, we must pursue the goals of green chemistry. Green chemistry became responsible for finding suitable solutions to all old manufacturing problems by finding alternative solutions to all previous negatives.


Algerian government Climate change Environmental problems Green chemistry Pesticides Pollution Soil Water resources 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Soil and Water Department, Faculty of AgricultureSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt
  2. 2.Water and Water Structures Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Natural Resources, Institute of African Research and StudiesAswan UniversityAswanEgypt

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