Advertisement

pp 1-23 | Cite as

Impacts of Pesticides on Soil and Water Resources in Algeria

  • El-Sayed Ewis OmranEmail author
  • Abdelazim Negm
Chapter
  • 7 Downloads
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series

Abstract

Algeria, with its natural resource factors, is a significant country in Africa and the world and is seeking a strong development in the demographic and economic scale. Algeria, with an area of 2.4 million km2, is North Africa’s biggest nation. Sahara occupies most of this surface, unfit for farming, but rich in mineral resources. Over 90% of the population lives in the north, including a coastal land along the Mediterranean Sea, plains, hills, and highlands. In the north, the annual quantity of rain ranges from 300 to 1,000 mm. The annual amount of rain in the Sahara and the Saharan Atlas in the south is less than 100 mm. Algeria has 17 main hydrographic basins and shares with Tunisia the basin of Medjerda and with Morocco the basins of Tafna, Draa, Guir, and Daoura. Agriculture continues to play a dominant role in the economy of the country. Twenty years ago, agriculture accounted for more than 75% of the active population in the south. This has now dropped to about 20%. It is another tale in the country’s south. The population was only 0.9 million in 1967, but by 1987 it increased to nearly two million, and by 2010, it is over three million, and in 2019, it is around 43 million. About 40% of the inhabitants now rely for their livelihood on agriculture. The Algerian authority was facing serious problems in managing its soil and water resources. This chapter offers an overview of the present issues in pesticides that harm animal and human health and cause natural resource scarcity and environmental pollution by accumulating in soil and leaching into water bodies. Naturally, the current situation in Algeria is exacerbated by two important constraints:
  1. 1.

    Groundwater and surface water pollution, which domestic, industrial, and agricultural waste far exceeds the ability of sewage systems, significantly reducing the quantity of treated water that can be used.

     
  2. 2.

    Risk of sustainable development in relation to soil and water pollution, which severe issues arose in groundwater evaluated samples that exceed natural resource renewal boundaries and need to tap into nonrenewable reserves.

     

This chapter also highlights the urgent need to develop new branches of chemistry that are less dangerous to human health and the environment. Therefore, we must pursue the goals of green chemistry. Green chemistry became responsible for finding suitable solutions to all old manufacturing problems by finding alternative solutions to all previous negatives.

Keywords

Algerian government Climate change Environmental problems Green chemistry Pesticides Pollution Soil Water resources 

References

  1. 1.
    United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017) World population prospects: the 2017 revision. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    FAO (2005) Agricultural extension and training needs of farmers in the small island countries: a case study from Samoa. M.K. Qamar and S.S. Lameta. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Malabo MP (2018) Water-wise: smart irrigation strategies for Africa. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Malabo Montpellier Panel, DakarGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Huang SS, Liao QL, Hua M (2007) Survey of heavy metal pollution and assessment of agricultural soil in Yangzhong district, Jiangsu Province, China. Chemosphere 67(11):2148–2155Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    N’guessan YM, Probst MJL, Bur T, Probst A (2009) Trace elements in stream bed sediments from agricultural catchments (Gascogne region, S-W France): where do they come from? Sci Total Environ 407(8):2939–2952Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anikwe MAN, Okonkwo CI, Mbah CN (2003) Yield of soybean. Tropicultura 5:22–27Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kanissery RG, Gerald-Sims K (2011) Biostimulation for the enhanced degradation of herbicides in soil. Appl Environ Soil Sci 2011: 10 pGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yamamoto Y, Sukchan S (2017) Land suitability analysis concerning water resource and soil property. Analysis concerning water resource JIRCAS Working Report No. 30, 2017 (Report No. 30)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Persits F, Ahlbrandt T, Tuttle M, Charpentier R, Brownfield M, Takahashi K (2002) Map showing geology, oil and gas fields and geologic provinces of Africa. USGS Open File report 97-470 A. Ver 2.0Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Africa Water Atlas (2019) Africa Groundwater Atlas Country Hydrogeology maps. British Geological Survey. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Algeria. Accessed 10 Jan 2019
  12. 12.
    Perennes J (1993) Water and men in the Maghreb. Karthala Edition, ParisGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    MATE (2002) National Plan of actions for the environment and the durable development, p 39Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eusoils (2012) Data collection on contaminated sites. http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/library/data/eionet/2011_Contaminated_Sites.htm, 2011
  15. 15.
    CEDARE (2014) Algeria water sector m&e rapid assessment report. Monitoring & evaluation for water in North Africa (MEWINA) project. Water resources management program. CEDARE, HeliopolisGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    MADR (2012) Rapport d’audition MADR. Volet hydraulique. Direction des zones arides et semi-arides, p 27Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ware G, Whitacre D (2004) The pesticide book, 6th edn. Meister Pro Information Resources, WilloughbyGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pimentel D, Pimentel MH (2008) Food, energy and society, 3rd edn. CRC Press: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, Boca Raton, p 402Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gusdorf J (2019) Ecological living. Taylor & Francis, Milton ParkGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krieger R, Doull J, Hemmen J, Hodgson E, Maibach H, Reiter L, Ritter L, Ross J, Slikker W, Vega H (2010) Hayes handbook of pesticide toxicology, 3rd edn. Academic Press, Cambridge, p 1Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    WHO (2008) Pesticides: children’s health and the environment. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gauvrit C (1996) Efficacité et sélectivité des herbicides. INRA, Paris, p 158Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saiyed H, Dewan A, Bhatnagar V, Shenoy U, Shenoy R (2003) Effect of endosulfan on male reproductive development. Environ Health Perspect 111:1958–1962Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Forté A, Colacino J, Polemi K, Guytingco A, Peraino NJ, Jindaphong S, Kaviya T, Westrick J, Neitzel R, Nambunmee K (2019) Pesticide exposure and adverse health effects associated with farm work in Northern Thailand. bioRxiv:549618Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zikankuba V, Mwanyika G, Ntwenya J, James A (2019) Pesticide regulations and their malpractice implications on food and environment safety. Cogent Food Agric 5:1601544Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mobarak YM, Al-Asmari MA (2011) Endosulfan impacts on the developing Chick embryos: morphological, morphometric and skeletal changes. Int J Zool Res 7(2):107–127Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    UNEP (2001) Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    PNM (2006) National Implementation Plan (NIP) ALGERIA. Stockholm Convention POP’s Project – Algeria GF/ALG/02/001Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Miller G (2004) Sustaining the Earth: an integrated approach. Thomson/Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, pp 211–216Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Damalas CA, Eleftherohorinos IG (2011) Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators. Int J Environ Res Public Health 8(12):1402–1419Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lamberth C Jeanmart S, Luksch T, Plant A (2013) Current challenges and trends in the discovery of agrochemicals. Sci Technol 341(6147):742–746Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tosi S, Cecilia C, Umberto V, Giancarlo Q, Giovanni G (2018) A 3-year survey of Italian honey bee-collected pollen reveals widespread contamination by agricultural pesticides. Sci Total Environ 615:208–218Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hussain S, Siddique T, Saleem M, Arshad M, Khalid A (2009) Impact of pesticides on soil microbial diversity, enzymes, and biochemical reactions. Adv Agronomy 102:159–200Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kellogg R, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss D, Plotkin S (2000) Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields archived June 18, 2002, at the Wayback machine. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lotter D, Seidel R, Liebhardt W (2003) The performance of organic and conventional cropping systems in an extreme climate year. Am J Altern Agric 18(3):146–154Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Arias-Estévez M, López-Periago E, Martínez-Carballo E, Simal-Gándara J, Juan-Carlos M, García-Río L (2008) The mobility and degradation of pesticides in soils and the pollution of groundwater resources. Agric Ecosyst Environ 123(4):247–260Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ortiz-Hernández ML, Sánchez-Salinas E, Dantán-González E, Castrejón-Godínez ML (2013) Pesticide biodegradation: mechanisms, genetics and strategies to enhance the process. Life Sci:251–287Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    FAO, Arias-Estevez, Lopez-Periago, Martinez-Carballo, Simal-Gandara, Mejuto & Garcia-Rio (2008), p 248 2003: p 348 65Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Guo J, Liu X, Zhang Y, Shen J, Han W, Zhang W, Christie P, Goulding K, Vitousek P, Zhang F (2010) Significant acidification in major Chinese croplands. Science 327(5968):1008–1010Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Guide to the millennium assessment reports, p 767Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Soil and Water Department, Faculty of AgricultureSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt
  2. 2.Water and Water Structures Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Natural Resources, Institute of African Research and StudiesAswan UniversityAswanEgypt

Personalised recommendations