Advertisement

pp 1-27 | Cite as

The Change in the Water Chemistry of the Rivers of Montenegro over a 10-Year Period

  • Vesna Vukašinović-PešićEmail author
  • Nada Blagojević
  • Ana Savić
  • Nevenka Tomić
  • Vladimir Pešić
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series

Abstract

In this chapter, we provide an overview of changes in the chemical parameters most commonly used in water quality assessment within the framework of the National Surface Water Monitoring Programme of Montenegro. We chose the parameters (water temperature, pH, electroconductivity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, water hardness, and quantities of ammonium, chlorides, sulphates, phosphates and nitrates) which were monitored over a 10-year period from 2009 to 2018. We briefly review the main results of the monitoring of the water quality of the watercourses in Montenegro in the investigated period. The quality index results revealed an increase in water quality since 2012. The results of our study show significant differences between the Adriatic and Black Sea basins in terms of linear trends and interannual variability, notably in the frequency of occurrence of anomalous and extreme values of the investigated chemical parameters over a 10-year period.

Keywords

Montenegro Pollution Rivers Water chemistry Water quality monitoring 

References

  1. 1.
    Sekulić G, Radulović M (2020) The hydrology and hydrogeology of Montenegro. In: Pešić V, Paunović M, Kostianoy A (eds) The rivers of Montenegro. The handbook of environmental chemistry. Springer International Publishing AG, ChamGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pešić V, Paunović M, Kostianoy V (2020) The rivers of Montenegro – introductory remarks. In: Pešić V, Paunović M, Kostianoy A (eds) The rivers of Montenegro. The handbook of environmental chemistry. Springer International Publishing AG, ChamGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pešić V, Karaman GS, Kostianoy AG (2018) Introduction. In: Pešić V, Karaman G, Kostianoy A (eds) The Skadar/Shkodra lake environment. The handbook of environmental chemistry, vol 80. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moss B, Kosten S, Meerhoff M, Battarbee RW, Jeppesen E, Mazzeo N, Havens K, Lacerot G, Liu Z, De Meester L, Paerl H, Scheffer M (2011) Allied attack: climate change and eutrophication. Inland Waters 1:101–105Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vannote RL, Minshall GW, Cummins KW, Sedell JR, Cushing CE (1980) The river continuum concept. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 37(1):130–137Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Council Directive 75/440/EEC (1975) Council Directive 75/440/EEC of 16 June 1975 concerning the quality required of surface water intended for the abstraction of drinking water in the Member States. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri¼CELEX:31975L0440&from¼en. Accessed 10 Aug 2019
  7. 7.
    European Commission (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC, establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Off J Eur Comm Brussels L 327:1–71Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pešić V, Karaman GS, Kostianoy AG, Vukašinović-Pešić V (2018) Conclusions: recent advances and the future prospects of the lake Skadar/Shkodra environment. In: Pešić V, Karaman G, Kostianoy A (eds) The Skadar/Shkodra lake environment. The handbook of environmental chemistry, vol 80. Springer, Cham, pp 481–500Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    The Law on Environment (2016) Official Gazette of Montenegro No 052/16 (in Montenegrin)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Water Law (2007) Official Gazette of Montenegro No. 27/07, 73/10, 32/11, 47/11, 48/15, 52/16, 55/16, 02/17 (in Montenegrin)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    The Decree on Classification and Categorization of surface and Groundwater of Montenegro (2007) Official Gazette of Montenegro No 2/07 (in Montenegrin)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    The Decree on the National List of Environmental Indicators (2013) Official Gazette of Montenegro No 019/13 (in Montenegrin)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    EPA (2018) Information on the state of the environment for 2017. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro. https://www.dropbox.com/s/28xb9kpnv5rarqw/Informacija-o-stanju-zivotne-sredine_za_2017_godinu-prosirena-verzija.pdf?dl=0. Accessed 1 Aug 2019
  14. 14.
    EPA (2013) Report on the state of the environment in Montenegro based on indicators. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro, PodgoricaGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    EPA (2017) Report on the state of the environment in Montenegro based on indicators. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro, PodgoricaGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    IJC (Institute Jaroslav Cerni) (2001) Water master plan of Montenegro. Government of Montenegro, Podgorica. (in Serbian)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tomović S (2008) Ciljevi vodoprivrednog razvoja Crne Gore. Vodoprivreda 40(231–233):127–137Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Radulović VL (1977) The waters of the Socialist Republic of Montenegro, their pollutants and pollution. Ekologija (Acta Biologica Yugoslavica) 12(2):141–171Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    IWRM (2016) Support to water resources management in the Drina River Basin. Montenegro – IWRM Study and Plan – Background Paper. World Bank. http://www.wb-drinaproject.com/pdf/Roof%20Report%20-%20English%20-%20Final.pdf. Accessed 5 Aug 2019
  20. 20.
    EPA (2016) Information on the state of the environment for 2016. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro, Podgorica. https://epa.org.me/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Informacija-o-stanju-zivotne-sredine-za-2016.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2019
  21. 21.
    EPA (2017) Information on the state of the environment for 2017. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro, Podgorica. https://epa.org.me/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Skracena-verzija-EPA-IoSZS-_za_2017.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2019
  22. 22.
    Nikolić S (2000) Nature and tourism of Montenegro. The Republic Institute for the Protection of Nature, PodgoricaGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Purić M, Mihailović R (1983) Physico-chemical features of waters from the Tara River drainage area with special review on possibility of natural and industrial pollution. Glas Republ Zavoda Zašt Prirode – Prirodnjačkog Muzeja Titograd 16:149–159Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    EPA (2013) Information on the state of the environment for 2013. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro, Podgorica. https://epa.org.me/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Informacija-o-stanju-ziv.sredine-za-2013.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2019
  25. 25.
    EPA (2015) Information on the state of the environment for 2013. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro, Podgorica. https://epa.org.me/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/izvjestaj-o-stanju-zivotne-sredine-za-2015.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2019
  26. 26.
    EPA (2014) Information on the state of the environment for 2014. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro, Podgorica. https://epa.org.me/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Informacija-o-stanju-%C5%BEivotne-sredine-u-Crnoj-Gori-u-2014.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2019
  27. 27.
    Kostianoy AG, Serykh IV, Kostianaia EA (2018) Climate change in the Lake Skadar/Shkodra region. In: Pešić V, Karaman G, Kostianoy A (eds) The Skadar/Shkodra lake environment. The handbook of environmental chemistry, vol 80. Springer, Cham, pp 63–88Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Delpla I, Jung AV, Baures E, Clemen M, Thomas O (2009) Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production. Environ Int 35(8):1225–1233Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Whitehead PG, Wilby RL, Battarbee RW, Kernan M, Wade AJ (2009) A review of the potential impacts of climate change on surface water quality. Hydrol Sci J 54:101–12328Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    The Second National Communication on Climate Change (2015) The Second National Communication on Climate Change of Montenegro to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism, Podgorica. http://www.mrt.gov.me/ResourceManager/FileDownload.aspx?rid=205823&rType=2. Accessed 1 May 2019
  31. 31.
    Van Vliet MTH, Franssen WHP, Yearsley JR, Ludwig F, Haddeland I, Lettenmaier DP, Kabat P (2013) Global river discharge and water temperature under climate change. Glob Environ Chang 23:450–464Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hosseini N, Johnston J, Lindenschmidt KE (2017) Impacts of climate change on the water quality of a regulated prairie river. Water 9(3):199Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vesna Vukašinović-Pešić
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nada Blagojević
    • 1
  • Ana Savić
    • 2
  • Nevenka Tomić
    • 3
  • Vladimir Pešić
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Metallurgy and TechnologyUniversity of MontenegroPodgoricaMontenegro
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of NišNišSerbia
  3. 3.Institute for Hydrometeorology and Seismology in MontenegroPodgoricaMontenegro
  4. 4.Department of BiologyUniversity of MontenegroPodgoricaMontenegro

Personalised recommendations