Advertisement

pp 1-25 | Cite as

Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the Mediterranean Sea

  • Andrey G. Kostianoy
  • Angela Carpenter
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series

Abstract

This chapter presents a review of knowledge on oil and gas exploration and production in the Mediterranean Sea. Oil and gas production and exploration is not so important in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike in the Gulf of Mexico, the North Sea, or the Caspian Sea, but its history goes back to the early twentieth century when hydrocarbon exploration activities started in Greece. In the Aegean Sea, a small number of significant oil discoveries were made in the mid-1970s at Prinos with production continuing to the present day. Today, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and the east coast of Italy in the Adriatic Sea, is the location of the majority of oil and gas exploration and exploitation activities. In 2002 it was estimated that there was a reserve of around 50 billion barrels of oil and 8 trillion m3 of gas in the region (about 4% of world reserves) and, in 2005, there were over 350 wells drilled for offshore production in the waters off Italy, Egypt, Greece, Libya, Tunisia, and Spain of which the majority were located along the Northern and Central Adriatic coasts of Italy. In the last decade, there has been serious development of offshore gas fields along the Mediterranean coasts of Israel, Palestine, Cyprus, and Egypt which in the near future will completely change the gas market in this region.

Keywords

Mediterranean Sea Offshore oil and gas platforms Oil and gas production Oil pollution 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research by A.G. Kostianoy was partially supported by the framework of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS budgetary financing (Project N 149-2018-0003).

References

  1. 1.
    Kostianoy AG, Kosarev AN (eds) (2005) The Caspian Sea environment. The handbook of environmental chemistry Springer, Berlin, 271 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhiltsov SS, Zonn IS, Kostianoy AG (eds) (2016) Oil and gas pipelines in the Black-Caspian Seas Region. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, p 288Google Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Laubier L (2005) Mediterranean Sea and humans: improving a conflictual partnership. In: Handbook of environmental chemistry, vol. 5, Part K, pp 3–27. Doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/b107142
  5. 5.
    Trabucco B, Maggi C, Manfra L, Nonnis O, DiMento R, Mannozzi M, Lamberti CV (2012) Monitoring of impacts of offshore platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy). In: El-Megren H (ed) Advances in natural gas technology, chapter 11, IntechOpen, pp 285–300Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kostianoy AG, Carpenter A (2018) History, sources and volumes of oil pollution in the Mediterranean Sea. In: Carpenter A, Kostianoy AG (eds) Oil pollution in the Mediterranean Sea: part I – the international context. Hdb Env Chem, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Galil B, Herut B (2011) Marine environmental issues of deep-sea oil and gas exploration and exploitation activities off the coast of Israel. IOLR Report H15/2011, Annex II. http://www.sviva.gov.il/subjectsEnv/SeaAndShore/MonitoringandResearch/SeaResearchMedEilat/Documents/IOL_deep_sea_drilling_Israel2011_1.pdf
  8. 8.
    Offshore Technology (2017) Noble energy hires Ensco’s drillship for offshore work in Israel. Offshore-Technology Com, Bews 22 Aug 2017. https://www.offshore-technology.com/news/newsnoble-energy-hires-enscos-drillship-for-offshore-work-in-israel-5907504/
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
    Offshore Staff (2018) Energean, BP extend offtake agreement for the Prinos oil field offshore Greece Offshore Magazine, February 2018. https://www.offshore-mag.com/articles/2018/02/energean-bp-extend-offtake-agreement-for-the-prinos-oil-field-offshore-greece.html
  11. 11.
    Oxford Business Group (2018) New discoveries for Egyptian oil producers. https://oxfordbusinessgroup.com/overview/fresh-ideas-new-discoveries-have-oil-producers-optimistic-about-future. Accessed 13 Oct 2018
  12. 12.
    Kostianoy AG, Lavrova OY (eds) (2014) Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea. The handbook of environmental chemistry. Springer, Berlin, p 268Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carpenter A (ed) (2016) Oil pollution in the North Sea. The handbook of environmental chemistry, vol 41. Springer International Publishing, Cham, p 312Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Carpenter A (2018) Oil Pollution in the North Sea: the impact of governance measures on oil pollution over several decades. Hydrobiologia, North Sea open science conference proceedings (Published online 12 March 2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-018-3559-2
  15. 15.
    Tansel B (2014) Propagation of impacts after oil spills at sea: categorization and quantification of local vs regional and immediate vs delayed impacts. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct 7:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2013.11.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kingston PF (2002) Long-term environmental impacts of oil spills. Spill Sci Technol Bull 7(1–2):55–61Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Transportation Research Board and National Research Council (2003) Oil in the sea III: inputs, fates, and effects. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.  https://doi.org/10.17226/10388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    Types of Offshore Oil and Gas Structures. NOAA Ocean Explorer: Expedition to the Deep Slope. 15 December 2008. https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/06mexico/background/oil/media/types_600.html. Accessed 12 Oct 2018
  20. 20.
    Energean (2018) https://www.energean.com/. Accessed 13 Oct 2018
  21. 21.
    Berenguel-Anter A (2018) Improving the safety of oil production in Greece. EBRD, 30 Apr 2018. https://www.ebrd.com/news/2018/improving-the-safety-of-oil-production-in-greece.html. Accessed 13 Oct 2018
  22. 22.
    Offshore Oil and Gas Production in Europe (2012) Joint Research Centre. EU Offshore Authorities Group – Web Portal. https://euoag.jrc.ec.europa.eu/node/63. Accessed 16 Oct 2018
  23. 23.
    Ministry of Economic Development of Italy (2018) http://unmig.sviluppoeconomico.gov.it/unmig/strutturemarine/elenco.asp. Accessed 16 Oct 2018
  24. 24.
    Cazzini FF (2018) The history of the oil and gas exploration in Italy. Search and Discovery Article #30545. AAPG International Conference and Exhibition, London, October 15–18, 2017. http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/2018/30545cazzini/ndx_cazzini.pdf. Accessed 16 Oct 2018
  25. 25.
    Italian Oil Drilling Referendum (2016) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_oil_drilling_referendum,_2016. Accessed 16 Oct 2018
  26. 26.
    Croatian Hydrocarbon Agency (2018) https://www.azu.hr/en/about-us/. Accessed 16 Oct 2018
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
    Offshore Technology (2018) Tamar natural gas field. https://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/tamar-field/. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  29. 29.
    Offshore Technology (2018) Leviathan gas field, Levantine Basin, Mediterranean Sea. https://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/leviathan-gas-field-levantine-israel/. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  30. 30.
    Offshore Technology (2018) Gaza marine gas field. https://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/gaza-marine-gas-field/. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  31. 31.
    Energean to buy 45% stake in Gaza Marine field. Egypt Oil and Gas. 8 July 2018. https://egyptoil-gas.com/news/energean-to-buy-45-stake-in-gaza-marine-field/. Accessed 16 Oct 2018
  32. 32.
    Offshore Technology (2018) Aphrodite gas field. https://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/aphrodite-gas-field/. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  33. 33.
    Offshore Technology (2018) Atoll gas field, North Damietta Offshore Concession, East Nile Delta. https://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/atoll-gas-field-north-damietta-offshore-concession-east-nile-delta/. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  34. 34.
    Offshore Technology (2018) Zohr gas field. https://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/zohr-gas-field/. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  35. 35.
    Offshore Technology (2018) Bouri Field, Mediterranean Sea. https://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/bouri-field-mediterranean-sea/. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  36. 36.
    World Ocean Review 3. Chapter 1: oil and gas from the sea. https://worldoceanreview.com/wp-content/downloads/wor3/WOR3_chapter_1.pdf. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  37. 37.
    Oceana. Offshore Oil Exploration in the Mediterranean Sea and impact on the marine ecosystem and on Cetaceans’ life. http://www.csun.edu/~dorsogna/nodrill/OffshoreExplore.pdf. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  38. 38.
    OSPAR Commission (2010) The quality status report 2010. OSPAR Commission, London. http://qsr2010.ospar.org/en/index.html. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  39. 39.
    Petrodata Weekly Rig Count (2018) https://ihsmarkit.com/products/offshore-oil-rig-data.html. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  40. 40.
    European Commission Joint Research Centre (2016) Safety of offshore oil and gas operations: lessons from past accident analysis. JRC Scientific and Policy Reports Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2012. http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC77767/offshore-accident-analysis-draft-final-report-dec-2012-rev6-online.pdf. Accessed 27 Oct 2018
  41. 41.
    European Parliament and Council (2013) Directive 2013/30.EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 June 2013 on safety of offshore oil and gas operations and amending Directive 2004/35/EC. Off J Eur Union L 178/66 of 28.6.2013. https://euoag.jrc.ec.europa.eu/files/attachments/osd_final_eu_directive_2013_30_eu1.pdf. Accessed 27 Oct 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.S.Yu. Witte Moscow UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.School of Earth and EnvironmentUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations