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Introduction

  • Alexander P. LisitsynEmail author
  • Liudmila L. Demina
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 82)

Abstract

Within the framework of the scientific program “The White Sea System,” many multidisciplinary expeditions have been held by the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of Russian Academy of Sciences over 15 years (2000–2015). As a result, a large amount of various materials (bottom sediments, marine and river suspended particulate matter, sediment-laden snow and ice, aerosols of the near-water layer, biota) has been collected from the different geospheres. During such long-term investigations, the White Sea was considered as a natural range of environmental conditions of the Arctic and subarctic regions. In Part II of “The White Sea Environment,” both the dispersed sedimentary matter (aerosols and suspended particulate matter) and the consolidated one (the bottom sediments) have been under considerations of researches of different specialization. Based on seismic and lithostratigraphic data, the major stages of the White Sea basin development were identified. Its history began about 14,000 years ago after the onset of the terrain deglaciation, while change of the sedimentation regime occurred about 11,000 years ago. Distribution pattern of marine diatoms and dinoflagellate cysts was used to characterize relationships between environmental parameters and water productivity at different areas of the sea. It was necessary to study the initial stage of SPM formation in water column, namely, changes in the amount and composition of the SPM in time (day-night, decades, months, seasons, and interannual changes). In the White Sea, we have introduced the sedimentation observatories equipped with automatic sediment traps to measure vertical fluxes of settling particles (mg m−2 day−1) at different depths from the surface water to the seafloor. At the seafloor, an independent determination of fluxes into the bottom sediments has been carried out by the use of different methods of sediment age dating (biological, isotopic, and other methods). Results of study of mineral, chemical (including toxic heavy metals, particularly mercury, as well as hydrocarbons), and isotope composition of bottom sediments are presented.

This book is addressed to the specialists working in various fields of environmental problems, especially in marine geology, ecology, and biogeochemistry.

Keywords

Biogeochemistry Bottom sediments History Particle fluxes Suspended particulate matter White Sea 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to Prof. Andrey Kostianoy – one of the series editors of The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry – for the idea to publish this book. We are grateful to the crews of research vessel “Ecolog,” “Professor Shtokman,” “Akademik Mstislav Keldysh,” and our colleagues who contributed to the chapters, as well as to those who helped in the processing of the obtained materials. The research results of Part II were obtained in the framework of the state assignment of FASO Russia (theme No. № 0149-2018-0016). Proceeding of data obtained earlier were summarized with support of the Russian Scientific Foundation, project No. 14-27-00114-P.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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