Advertisement

Update, Conclusions, and Recommendations for Groundwater in the Nile Delta

  • Abdelazim M. Negm
  • El-Sayed E. Omran
  • Sommer Abdel-Fattah
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 73)

Abstract

The current Egyptian situation is framed by land and water scarcity, which are under severe stress. The Nile Delta is well known as one of the most densely populated deltas in the world. On the one hand, soil and water resources are at the center of sustainable development and are critical for socioeconomic development. On the other hand, groundwater is considered the second main source of water supply in Egypt after the Nile River, although it represents less than 3% of the total water supply. The Nile Delta aquifer is among the largest underground freshwater reservoirs in the world, and it has been extensively utilized and conjunctively used with the Nile water to cope with the increased demands due to implementing economic development plan in Egypt. The major challenge facing the Nile Delta aquifer is it receives its water (recharging) from the Nile River which is threatened nowadays by the construction and most probably the improper operation of the GERD particularly over the long term. This chapter encapsulates the key groundwater sustainability (in terms of conclusions and recommendations) of the existing main agri-food system and presents insights derived from the cases in the volume. Also, some (update) findings from a few recently published research related to the sustainability covered themes. This chapter presents the main current challenges facing the groundwater aquifer with the set of recommendation to protect the Nile Delta aquifer to its sustainability to supply water to the Nile Delta populations and farmers.

Keywords

Assessment Delineation Egypt Geophysical methods Groundwater Hydrogeochemical Management Modeling Nile Delta Quality Salinization Seawater intrusion Sedimentology Sustainability 

References

  1. 1.
    El-Din MMN (2013) Climate change risk management in Egypt proposed climate change adaptation strategy for the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation in Egypt. UNESCO Office, CairoGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    CAPMAS (2012) Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. http://www.capmas.gov.eg/
  3. 3.
    Tamburelli P, Thill O (2013) The Nile metropolitan area. Berlage-Institute, TU Delft, DelftGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pathak R, Awasthi MK, Sharma SK, Hardaha MK, Nema RK (2018) Ground water flow modelling using MODFLOW – a review. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 7(2):83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Filippis G, Giudici M, Negri S, Margiotta S, Cattaneo L, Vassena C (2014) Numerical modeling of groundwater flow in the coastal aquifer system of Taranto (southern Italy). In: Geophysical research abstracts, vol 16. EGU2014-393-1Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zeidan BA, Aly AI, Rashwan IM, Ahmed MA, Ghoraba SM (2015) Scenarios for groundwater remediation using N15 in Nile Delta. In: 18th international water technology conference, IWTC2015, Sharm El-Shiekh, 12–14 MarGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Khayyun TH (2018) Simulation of groundwater flow and migration of the radioactive Cobalt-60 from LAMA nuclear facility-Iraq. Water 10:176.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kantoush SA (2013) The downstream impacts of Ethiopia’s cascade dams in the upper blue Nile on Egypt. In: Proceedings of regional sustainable building conference SB13. Cairo Fairmont Towers Hotel, CairoGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chao Z, Song X, Feng X (2018) Concept and connotation of water resources carrying capacity in water ecological civilization construction. In: IOP conference series: earth and environmental science, vol 111, p 012003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    IAH (2015) Food security and groundwater. International Association of Hydrogeologists strategic overview series. www.iah.org
  11. 11.
    UNESCO (2015) Water for a sustainable world. World water development report 2015. ISBN 978-92-3-100071-3. ePub ISBN 978-92-3-100099-7Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Abd-Elhamid H, Javadi A, Abdelaty I, Sherif M (2016) Simulation of seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta aquifer under the conditions of climate change. Hydrol Res 47(5):1–14.  https://doi.org/10.2166/nh.2016.157 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Imasuen OI, Omorogieva OM, Nwokoloh NJ (2016) Grain size and heavy mineral analyses of two boreholes in recent to miocene aquifer in benin formation. Niger J Technol 35:979–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Isikhuemen MI, Omorogieva OM (2015) Hydrogeochemical and biophysical characterization of groundwater in eastern Nigeria: a case study of onisha and environ. Niger J Technol 34:875–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Omorogieva OM, Imasuen OI (2016) Factors contributing to the concentration of heavy metals in stream sediment along Ikpoba River tributary in Oluku (upstream) to Ikpoba River dam (downstream) and their implication. Niger J Appl Sci 34:187–193Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Szabó NP, Anett K, Anett H (2015) Hydrogeophysical characterization of groundwater formations based on well logs: case study on cenozoic clastic aquifers in East Hungary. Geosci Eng 4(6):45–71Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ronczka M, Hellman K, Günther T, Wisén R, Dahlin T (2017) Electric resistivity and seismic refraction tomography: a challenging joint underwater survey at Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory. Solid Earth Sci 8:671–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goebela M, Adam P, Rosemary K (2017) Resistivity imaging reveals complex pattern of saltwater intrusion along Monterey coast. Hydrol Sci 551:746–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Muhammad M, Khalid P (2017) Hydrogeophysical investigations for assessing the groundwater potential in part of the Peshawar basin Pakistan. Arab J Sci Eng Sci 42:327–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sharaky AM, El Hasanein AS, Atta SA, Khallaf KM (2017) Nile and groundwater interaction in the western Nile Delta, Egypt. In: Negm AM (ed) The Nile Delta. Handbook of environmental chemistry, vol 55. Springer, Cham, pp 33–62.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2016_127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tarabees E, El-Qady G (2016) Seawater intrusion modeling in Rashid area of Nile Delta (Egypt) via the inversion of DC resistivity data. Am J Clim Chang 5:147–156.  https://doi.org/10.4236/ajcc.2016.52014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Armandine Les Landes A, Aquilina L, Davy P, Vergnaud-Ayraud V, Le Carlier C (2015) Timescales of regional circulation of saline fluids in continental crystalline rock aquifers (Armorican Massif, western France). Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 19:1413–1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Merchán D, Auqué LF, Acero P, Gimeno MJ, Causapé J (2015) Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: identification of natural and anthropogenic influence. Sci Total Environ 502:330–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    MWRI (Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Egypt) (2016) Water scarcity in Egypt: the urgent need for regional cooperation among the Nile Basin countries, 5 pp. http://www.mfa.gov.eg/SiteCollectionDocuments/Egypt%20Water%20Resources%20Paper_2014.pdf
  25. 25.
    Maity PK, Das S, Das R (2018) Remedial measures for saline water ingression in coastal aquifers of South West Bengal in India. MOJ Eco Environ Sci 3(1):00061.  https://doi.org/10.15406/mojes.2018.03.00061 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alfarrah NID, Walraevens K (2018) Groundwater overexploitation and seawater intrusion in coastal areas of arid and semi-arid regions. Water 10:143.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020143 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Atieh M, Taylor G, Sattar AM, Gharabaghi B (2017) Prediction of flow duration curves for ungauged basins. J Hydrol 545:383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sattar AM, Gharabaghi B, Sabouri F, Thompson AM (2017) Urban stormwater thermal gene expression models for protection of sensitive receiving streams. Hydrol Process 31(13):2330–2348.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.11170 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gharabaghi B, Sattar AM (2017) Empirical models for longitudinal dispersion coefficient in natural streams. J Hydrol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.01.022
  30. 30.
    El-Hakeem M, Sattar AM (2017) Explicit solution for the specific flow depths in partially filled pipes. J Pipeline Syst Eng Pract 8(4):06017004.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)PS.1949-1204.0000283 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Salem ZE, Osman MO (2016) Shallow subsurface temperature in the environs of El-Nubaria canal, northwestern Nile Delta of Egypt: implications for monitoring groundwater flow system. Environ Earth Sci 75:1241.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-6046-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Salem ZE, El Bayumy DA (2016) Use of the subsurface thermal regime as a groundwater-flow tracer in the semi-arid western Nile Delta, Egypt. Hydrogeol J 24(4):1001–1014.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-016-1377-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Salem ZE, Al Temamy AM, Salah MK, Kassab M (2016) Origin and characteristics of brackish groundwater in Abu Madi coastal area, northern Nile Delta, Egypt. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 178:21–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Salem ZE, Osman OM (2017) Use of major ions to evaluate the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater influenced by reclamation and seawater intrusion, West Nile Delta, Egypt. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:3675–3704.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8056-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nofal ER, Amer MA, El-Didy SM, Fekry AM (2015) Sea water intrusion in Nile Delta in perspective of new configuration of the aquifer heterogeneity using the recent stratigraphy data. J Am Sci 11:281–292Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wassef R, Schüttrumpf H (2016) Impact of sea-level rise on groundwater salinity at the development area western delta, Egypt. Groundwater Sustain Dev 2–3:85–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2016.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Anomohanran O (2014) Assessment of groundwater potential in Ozoro, Delta State, Nigeria using the electrical resistivity method. Appl Phys Res 6(5):116.  https://doi.org/10.5539/apr.v6n5p116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Negm AM, Armanuos AM (2017) GIS-based spatial distribution of groundwater quality in the western Nile Delta, Egypt. In: Negm AM (ed) The Nile Delta. Handbook of environmental chemistry. Springer, Cham.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2016_66 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Negm AM, Eltarabily MGA (2017) Modeling of fertilizer transport through soil, case study: Nile Delta. In: Negm AM (ed) The Nile Delta. Handbook of environmental chemistry. Springer, Cham.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2016_66 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Arumaikkani GS, Chelliah S, Gopalan M (2017) Mapping the spatial distributions of water quality and their interpolation with land use/land cover using GIS and remote sensing in Noyyal River basin, Tamil Nadu, India. J Geosci Environ Protection 5:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ng G-HC, Wickert AD, Somers LD, Saberi L, Cronkite-Ratcliff C, Niswonger RG, McKenzie JM (2018) GSFLOW-GRASS v1.0.0: GIS-enabled hydrologic modeling of coupled groundwater–surface-water systems. Geosci Model Dev Discuss.  https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2017-321
  42. 42.
    Salem ZE, Negm AM, Nahrawy A (2017) Hydrogeophysical characteristics of the central Nile Delta aquifer. Handb Environ Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_75 Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Attwa M, Ali H (2018) Resistivity characterization of aquifer in coastal semi arid-areas: an approach for hydrogeological evaluation. Handb Environ Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_210 Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ibraheem IM, El-Qady G (2017) Hydrogeophysical investigations at El-Nubariya-Wadi El-Natrun area, west Nile Delta, Egypt. Handb Environ Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_154 Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sharaky AM, El Hassanein AS, Atta SA, Khallaf KMA (2017) Salinization and origin of the coastal shallow groundwater aquifer, northwestern Nile Delta, Egypt. Handb Environ Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_183 Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Abdel Sattar AM, Bonakdari H, Negm A, Gharabaghi B, Elhakeem M (2017) Soil aquifer treatment system design equation for organic micropollutant removal. Handb Environ Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_136 Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Salem ZE, Osman OM (2017) Use of geoelectrical resistivity to delineate the seawater intrusion in the northwestern part of the Nile Delta, Egypt. Handb Environ Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_175 Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Armanuos AM, Negm A (2018) Integrated groundwater modeling for simulation saltwater intrusion in the Nile Delta aquifer, Egypt. Handb Environ Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_184 Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mahmod W (2017) Groundwater modeling and assessment under uncertain hydrological conditions for Egyptian Sahara. Handb Environ Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_84 Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Soliman AMM, Solimsn MM (2017) Groundwater potential in the new valley south west the Nile Delta in Egypt. Handb Environ Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_62 Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Salem ZE, Elsaiedy G, ElNahrawy A (2017) Hydrogeochemistry and quality assessment of groundwater under some central Nile Delta villages, Egypt. Handb Environ Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_111 Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Salem ZE, Elsaiedy G, ElNahrawy A (2017) Assessment of the groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in the central Nile Delta region, Egypt. Handb Environ Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_137 Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Eltarabily MGA, Negm AM (2017) Groundwater management for sustainable development east of the Nile Delta aquifer. Handb Environ Chem.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2017_102 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdelazim M. Negm
    • 1
  • El-Sayed E. Omran
    • 2
  • Sommer Abdel-Fattah
    • 3
  1. 1.Water and Water Structures Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  2. 2.Soil and Water Department, Faculty of AgricultureSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt
  3. 3.McMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations