Update, Conclusions, and Recommendations for Groundwater in the Nile Delta

  • Abdelazim M. NegmEmail author
  • El-Sayed E. Omran
  • Sommer Abdel-Fattah
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 73)


The current Egyptian situation is framed by land and water scarcity, which are under severe stress. The Nile Delta is well known as one of the most densely populated deltas in the world. On the one hand, soil and water resources are at the center of sustainable development and are critical for socioeconomic development. On the other hand, groundwater is considered the second main source of water supply in Egypt after the Nile River, although it represents less than 3% of the total water supply. The Nile Delta aquifer is among the largest underground freshwater reservoirs in the world, and it has been extensively utilized and conjunctively used with the Nile water to cope with the increased demands due to implementing economic development plan in Egypt. The major challenge facing the Nile Delta aquifer is it receives its water (recharging) from the Nile River which is threatened nowadays by the construction and most probably the improper operation of the GERD particularly over the long term. This chapter encapsulates the key groundwater sustainability (in terms of conclusions and recommendations) of the existing main agri-food system and presents insights derived from the cases in the volume. Also, some (update) findings from a few recently published research related to the sustainability covered themes. This chapter presents the main current challenges facing the groundwater aquifer with the set of recommendation to protect the Nile Delta aquifer to its sustainability to supply water to the Nile Delta populations and farmers.


Assessment Delineation Egypt Geophysical methods Groundwater Hydrogeochemical Management Modeling Nile Delta Quality Salinization Seawater intrusion Sedimentology Sustainability 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdelazim M. Negm
    • 1
    Email author
  • El-Sayed E. Omran
    • 2
  • Sommer Abdel-Fattah
    • 3
  1. 1.Water and Water Structures Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  2. 2.Soil and Water Department, Faculty of AgricultureSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt
  3. 3.McMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

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