Effect of Water Deficit on Food Productivity Under Saline Conditions: Case Study – North Sinai, Egypt

  • Mohamed Abu-hashimEmail author
  • Khaled Shaban
  • Amani Sallam
  • Abdelazim Negm
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 77)


Egypt is dependent mainly on the surface water coming from the Nile River. The water demand is increasing because of the rapid growth of populations and the impacts of climate change. Egypt is highly vulnerable to climate change, which increases the water demand and causes a loss of crops. Thus, one of the main challenges facing the sequential government during the previous decades was to enhance the agriculture sector by increasing the efficiency of water use. In this context, a field trial in Saline Soil at Sahl El-Tina (North Sinai) was designed in a system of a completely randomized block design and this trial was carried out during two winter seasons, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013, to study the response of economic crop (faba bean) yield to different water supply regimes. The experiment included three water irrigations, El-Salam Canal, schedules 3,600, 6,000, and 7,200 m3/ha (ha = 10,000 m2), and two varieties of faba bean. The results obtained showed a reduction in soil salinity values with increasing water supply. That is, applying the water regime of 7,200 m3/ha revealed decreased soil salinity on the experimental farm by 30% compared with using the water regime 3,600 m3/ha for both seasons. Nevertheless, the results of the yield quantity showed that the weight of seeds/plant (g) and plant height (cm) decreased with reduction of the water supply. For the yield quality, such as seed quality, carbohydrate percentage, high protein, seedling dry weight, and radical length were accompanied by low water application (3,600 m3/ha). The results relevant to the approach to water use efficiency were suitable with lower water supplies. In addition, using the water regime of 6,000 m3/ha with the Sakha 3 cultivar under saline soil conditions was more efficient according to the concepts of water saving, water use efficiency, seed quality, and yield.


Faba bean Soil salinity Water regime Water stress Water use efficiency 


  1. 1.
    FAO (2002) Food and Agriculture Organization year book: production. no. 55, vol 16. FAO, Rome, pp 4–6Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gama PBS, Inanage S, Tanaka K, Nokazawa R (2007) Physiological response of common bean (Phaseolus valgaris L.) seedling to salinity stress. Afr J Biotechnol 6(2):79–88Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alireze E, Farshad H (2013) Water use efficiency variation and its components in wheat cultivars. Am J Exp Agric 3(4):718–730Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sairam RK, Rao KV, Srivastava GC (2002) Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Sci 163(5):1037–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gherroucha H, Baka M, Moharid SA (2003) Effect of foliar application with indole acetic acid and gibberellic acid and the interaction between them on growth and some physiological constituents of wheat plant grown under salinity conditions. Arab Univ J Agric Sci 11(1):69–85Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hu Y, Oertli JJ, Schmidhalter U (1997) Interactive effects of salinity and macronutrient level on wheat growth. J Plant Nutr 20(9):1155–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grattan SR, Grieve CM (1999) Mineral nutrient acquisition and response by plants grown in saline environments. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of plant and crop physiology. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, pp 203–229Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Omar SA, Afiah SAN (1999) Selection for salt tolerance of some triticale lines under Ras Sudr conditions. Desert Inst Bull Egypt 49(1):1–12Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ravender S, Kundu DK, Singh R (2000) Soil salinity effect on germination of wheat (Triticum aestrivum), castor (Ricimus communis), safflower (Crthamus tinctorius) and dill seed (Anethum graveolens) in Vertic Ustohrept of Bhal region of Gujarat. Indian J Agric Sci 70(7):459–460Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Singh YV, Swarup A, Gupta SK (2002) Effect of short-term water-logging on growth, yield and mineral composition of sorghum. Agrochimica 46(5):231–239Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ali RM, Abbas HM (2003) Response of salt stressed barley seedlings to phenyl-urea. Plant Soil Environ 49(4):158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Abu-Hashim MSD, Shaban KA (2017) Deficit irrigation management as strategy to adapt water scarcity – potential application on Mediterranean saline soils. Egypt J Soil Sci 57(3):261–271Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ashraf M, McNeily T (1988) Variability in salt tolerance of nine spring wheat cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci 160:14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abu-Hashim M, Mohamed E, Belal A (2015) Identification of potential soil water retention using hydric numerical model at arid regions by land-use changes. Int Soil Water Con Res 3:305–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kozlowski TT (1972) Water deficit and plant growth. Academic Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kramer PJ (1974) Fifty years of progress in water relations research. Plant Physiol 54:463–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    French RJ (2009) Effects of early water deficit on growth and development of faba bean. Proceedings of the Australian agronomy conference, vol 54. Australian Society of Agronomy, Perth, pp 463–471Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ouda SA, Mouhamed AS, Radhad A (2010) Increasing water productivity of faba bean grown under deficit irrigation at middle Egypt. Fourteenth International Water Technology Conference. IWTC, Cairo, pp 345–355Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Alderfasi AA, Alghamdi SS (2010) Integrated water supply with nutrient requirements on growth, photosynthesis productivity, chemical status and seed yield of faba bean. Am Euroasian J Agron 3(1):8–17Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hirich AF, Choukr AR, Jacobsen SE, El-Youssfi L, El-Omari H (2012) Growth of faba bean as influenced by deficit irrigation with treated wastewater applied during vegetative growth stage. Int J Med Biol Sci 6:85–92Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sharma SK (1995) Effects of salinity on growth performance and internal distribution of Na+, K+ and Cl- in Vicia faba L. Indian J Plant Physiol 38(part 1):69–72Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hossain MS, Mortuza MG (2006) Chemical composition of Kalimatar, a locally grow strain of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Pak J Biol Sci 9:1817–1822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Duc G, Marget P, Esnault R, Guen JE, Bastianelli D (1999) Genetic variability for feeding value of faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) comparative chemical composition of isogenics involving zero-tannin and zero-vicine genes. J Agric Sci 133:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alghamdi SS (2009) Chemical composite of Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes under various water regimes. Pak J Nutr 8(4):477–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ibrahim SA, Kandil H (2007) Growth, yield and chemical constituents of soybean (Glycine max L.) plant as affected by plant spacing under different irrigation intervals. Res J Agric Biol Sci 36:657–663Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Al-Suhaibani NA (2009) Influence of early water deficit on seed yield and quality of Faba bean under arid environment of Saudi Arabia. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 5(5):649–654Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Araujo Mantovant EC, Siwa RF (1982) Influência da idade armazenamento dos frutes ria qualidade de sementes de abobora. Revista Brasileira de Sementes, Brasília 4(1)):77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Welbaum GE, Bradford KJ (1991) Water relations of seed development and germination in muskmelon (Curcumis melo L.). VII. Influence of after–ripening and ageing on germination response to temperature and water potential. J Exp Bot 42:1137–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bravo A, Venges X (1984) Germination of seeds of three squash (Cucurbita maxima duch). Cultivars at suboptimal temperatures. J Clin Invest Agric 11:135–140. (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Doijede S (2000) Seed viability and biochemical changes during storage of winter squash (Cucurbitamaxima Duch) seeds. J Veg Sci 27:168–171Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ahmed IM (2013) Irrigation water quality evaluation in El-Salam canal project. Int J Eng Appl Sci 3(1):21–28Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    El-Dakroury MA (2008) Influence of different irrigation systems and irrigation treatments on productivity and fruit quality of some bean varieties. MSc thesis, Faculty of Agriculture. Ain Shams University, CairoGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Agrama AA, Amer AS (2012) Investigation of El-Salam canal water quality, south El-Qantara sharq area. J Appl Sci Rec 8(4):1927–1935Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sallam A, Shaban KA, Abu-Hhashim M (2014) Influence of water deficit on seed yield and seed quality of Faba bean under saline soil conditions at North Sinai, Egypt. Egypt J Soil Sci 54(3):265–278Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cottenie A, Verloo M, Kikens L, Velghe G, Camerlynck R (1982) Analytical problems and method in chemical plant and soil analysis. Hand book A. Cottenie, State University, GhentGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (1982) Methods of chemical analysis. Part 2: chemical and microbiological properties, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bos MG (1985) Summary of ICID definition of irrigation efficiency. ICID Bull 34:28–31Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    ISTA (1985) International rule for seed testing. J Seed Sci Technol (13):307–355Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kirshasamy V, Seshu DV (1990) Phosphine fumigation influence on rice seed germination and vigor. Crop Sci 30:28–85Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    AOAC (1990) Association of official methods of analytical chemists, official methods of analysis, 5th edn. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Balasio ED, Hussein A, Ahmed MA (2006) Effect of watering regimes at two stage of growth on faba bean grain yield at Selaim Basin. Am Soc Agric Engineers Trans 8:433–443Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    De Costa WAJM, Shanmugathasan KN, Joseph KDSM (1999) Physiology of yield determination of mung bean, (Vigna radiate L.) under various irrigation regimes in the dry and intermediate zones of Sri Lanka. Field Crops Res 61:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Link W, Balko C, Stoddard FL (2010) Winter hardiness in faba bean: physiology and breeding. Field Crops Res 115:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Musallam IW, Al-Karaki GN, Ereifej KI (2004) Chemical rain-fed and irrigation condition. Int J Agric Biol 6:359–362Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Liu RJ, Andersen MN (2004) Drought stress effect on carbohydrate concentration in soybean leaves and pods during early reproductively development: its implication in altering pod set. Field Crops Res 86:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ahmed AK, Tawfik KM, Abd El-gawad ZA (2008) Tolerance of seven Faba bean varieties to drought and salt stress. Res J Agric Biol Sci 4(2):175–186Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Abu-hashim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Khaled Shaban
    • 2
  • Amani Sallam
    • 3
  • Abdelazim Negm
    • 4
  1. 1.Soil Science Department, Faculty of AgricultureZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  2. 2.Soils, Water and Environmental Research Institute, Agricultural Research CenterGizaEgypt
  3. 3.Seed Technology Research DepartmentField Crop InstituteGizaEgypt
  4. 4.Water and Water Structures Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

Personalised recommendations