Advertisement

Water Distribution System in Building and Its Microbiological Contamination Minimization

  • D. Káposztásová
  • Z. Vranayová
  • P. Purcz
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 70)

Abstract

Today we are facing the need to ensure water quality, so the basic requirement of today’s civilization is to assess the water quality and perform the necessary treatment, adapt, transport, and heat it. The water pipes as a major part of the entire water distribution system have undergone considerable technical and technological development. Today we know that the various piping materials that have been used to transport water throughout historical development had a great impact on water quality. Drinking water must not cause any health problems to users. Microbiological contamination of drinking water and the health risk caused by pathogens that colonize the technical systems, however, occasionally causes serious problems. These include, for example, some cases of epidemic outbreaks of deaths that have occurred in the past 10 years in various parts of the world (e.g. cholera, typhus). Legionnaires’ disease legionellosis also belongs to such newer diseases. The first case of Legionella infection from water distribution system was recorded in a patient’s kidney transplantation. Since then, Legionella has begun to be tracked in water systems in different types of buildings, including hotels, homes, factories, and ships. This bacterium was found throughout the water system, from the water source to the outflow fittings. The goal of this chapter is to present hot water tank – a mathematical model which simulates temperature profile of hot water tank and works on obtained approximated function. Temperature and water stagnation are one of the factors that caused microbiological contamination of water, and by knowing the temperature profile, we can reduce the possible risks. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, it is required for a water supplier and operator of a building to ensure the prescribed quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the Legionella growth.

Keywords

Contamination Hot water tank Legionella pneumophila Mathematical model Water distribution system 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract No. VEGA 1/0697/17 Hygienic water audit platform as transition tool to Legionella free water and HVAC systems in hospitals.

Thanks to Regional Health Center of Kosice for help with the sample collection and for many useful suggestions.

References

  1. 1.
    STN EN ISO 11731: 2017. Water quality. Enumeration of LegionellaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ocipova D, Vranayova Z, Sikula O (2012) Negative impact of bacteria Legionella pneumophila in hot water distribution systems on human health. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 6:670–674Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Health and Safety Executive. http://www.hse.gov.uk/legionnaires/what-is.htm. Accessed 20 Jan 2018
  4. 4.
    Vranyova Z, Kaposztasova D (2017) System solutions in the fight against infection caused by bacteria Legionella, water supply and drainage in buildings. In: CIB conference, TVVL, Amsterdam, pp 485–494Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pospichal Z (2005) Ochrana vnitřního vodovodu z pohledu mikrobiologie (Protection of the internal water supply from the point of view of microbiology). In: Designer workbook – work basics. Společnost pro techniku prostředí–STP, BratislavaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ocipova D (2007) Hot water system contamination in the frame of central heat supply. In: Budownictwo o zoptimalizowanym potencjale energeticznym. Wydawnictva Politechniki Czestochowskiej, Czestochowa, pp 406–411. ISBN 978-83-7193-357-8Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    TNI CEN/TR 16355:2012. Recommendations for prevention of Legionella growth in installations inside building conveying water for human consumptionGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Valasek J et al (2001) Sanitary installations and installations in buildings, 1st edn. Bratislava Jaga group, v.o.s., Bratislava. ISBN 80-88905-52-4Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Information for designers, Legionella protection news – translation from the German original Hungarian Copper Promotion Center, Apr 2005Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    De Cuyper K (2002) Efficiency of anti-Legionella treatments in situ: an investigation of the use of water-electrolysis and chlorine dioxide. In: CIB W062 symposium, RomaniaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krescanko M (2006) Legionnaire disease – threat of water. In: TZB-HausTechnik, 2/2006 ProMinent SlovenskoGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kosicanova D (2007) The energy efficiency of thermal disinfection. In: Proceedings from the 12th international conference Sanhyga 2007, Trenčianske Teplice, 30 and 31 Oct 2007, pp 53–58Google Scholar
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Ocipova D (2010) Theoretical and experimental analysis of hot water distribution systems. Dissertation thesis, Technical University of KošiceGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bucko M (1981) Probability and mathematical statistics. University textbookGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ocipova D, Vranayova Z, Sikula O (2011) Risk management methods in hot water distribution systems to negate health risks from microbiological contamination. Environ Eng 1:1–3Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bartram J, Chartier Y, Lee JV, Pond K, Surman-Lee S (2007) Legionella and the prevention of Legionellosis. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Health and Safety Executive (2018) http://www.hse.gov.uk/legionnaires/what-is.htm. Accessed 20 Jan 2018

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Civil EngineeringTechnical University of KošiceKošiceSlovakia
  2. 2.Institute of Construction Technology and Management, Faculty of Civil EngineeringTechnical University of KošiceKošiceSlovakia

Personalised recommendations