Impacts of Climate Change on Insect Pests of Main Crops in Egypt

  • Ali Ahmed El-SayedEmail author
  • Mohamed Ahmed Nada
  • Said Moussa Abd El-Fattah
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 77)


Climate change is expected to have a negative or positive effect on the short and long term on the diversity of pest’s abundance, pest’s–host plant interactions, an abundance of natural enemies, and finally the extent of damage to the Egyptian economy due to the impact on agricultural economic crops. Under current and previous climatic conditions, major crops and their pests have adapted to climatic elements that help them to survive, grow, reproduce, and spread, based on host abundance and interaction. The significant change in climate is reflected in the increase in the average temperature of the globe, the change in precipitation amounts, their patterns, and their locations. These seasonal and long-term changes will affect the crops grown regarding production and components, the emergence of new plant species that were not previously known. In other words, any change in the components of the environment will be reflected in human lifestyles and the pests associated with their crops. In studies under laboratory conditions, climate components directly affected insect dynamics by modifying growth, survival, fertility, dispersion, and differentiation.


Agriculture Climate change Crops Egypt Insects 


  1. 1.
    FAO (2010) Challenges and opportunities for carbon sequestration in grassland systems. Integrated crop management, vol 9. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burney JA, Davis SJ, Lobell DB (2010) Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:12052–12057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Semenov M (2009) Impacts of climate change on wheat in England and Wales. J R Soc Interface 6:343–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wassmann RS, Jagdish VK, Hauer S, Ismail A, Redona E, Serraj R, Singh RK, Howell G, Pathak H, Sum Fleth K (2009) Climate change affecting rice production: the physiological and agronomic basis for possible adaptation. Adv Agron 101:59–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lal R, Stewart BA (2012) Sustainable management of soil resources and food security. In: Lal R, Stewart BA (eds) World soil resources and food security. Advances in soil science series. Taylor and Francis Group/LLC/CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hillel D, Rosenzweig C (2011) Handbook of climate change and agroecosystems: impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. ICP series on climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation, vol 1. Imperial College Press/World Scientific, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gardner FP, Pearce RB, Mitchell RL (1985) Physiology of crop plants. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abd El-hamid ZA, Khairat NS (2014) Mechanisms of adaptation to climate change for farmers in Kafr El-Sheikh and Minya Governorates. Glob J Agric Food Saf Sci 1(2):382–401Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abu Al-lzz MS (1971) Landforms of Egypt (trans: Fayid YA). The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo, p 281Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ouda S, Noreldin T, Abd El-Latif K (2015) Water requirements for wheat and maize under climate change in North Nile Delta. Span J Agric Res 13(1):e03-001. 10 pGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    FAO (2008) Climate change and food security: a framework document. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    IPCC (2008) Accessed 14 Mar 2008
  13. 13.
    Raberg T (2008) Agro ecosystems in a changing climate: adaptation through crop rotations, vol 9. Master project in the Horticultural Science Programme, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Agricultural Science, SLU-Alnarp, p 20 (30 ECTS)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Said R (1962) The geology of Egypt. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 377Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zahran MA, Willis AJ (2009) The vegetation of Egypt. In: Werger MJA (ed) Plant and vegetation series, vol 2. 2nd edn. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    IPCC (1996) The science of climate change summary for policymakers and technical summary of the Working Group1 report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salem MG (2012) Water and hydropower for sustainable development of Qattara depression as a national project in Egypt. Energy Procedia 18:994–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McCarthy J, Canziani OF, Leary NA, Dokken DJ, White C (2001) Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rosenzweig C, Hillel D (1998) Climate change and the global harvest: potential impacts of the greenhouse effect. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Van de Geijnm SC, Goudriaan J (1996) The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature change on transpiration and crop water use. In: Bazzaz F, Sombroek WG (eds) Global climate change and agricultural production. Wiley, Chichester, pp 101–121Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Phillips DL, Lee JL, Dodson RF, Phillips DL, Lee JL, Dodson RF (1996) Sensitivity of the U.S. corn belt to climate change and elevated CO2. I: Corn and soybean yields. Agric Syst 52:481–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    El-Ramady RH, El-Marsafawy SM, Lewis LN (2013) Sustainable agriculture and climate changes in Egypt. In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Sustainable agriculture reviews. Sustainable agriculture reviews, vol 12. Springer, Dordrecht, p 41. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nada MA, Abou-Setta MM, El-Sayed AAA, Ragab MG, Hassanein MK (2018) Effect of climate changes on growth pattern of cotton plants in relation to the infestation with pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Egypt J Agric Res 96Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Delaplane KS (2007) Pesticide usage in the United States: history, benefits, risks and trends. University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Athens, p 20Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Parmesan C (2007) Influences of species, latitudes and methodologies on estimates of phenological response to global warming. Glob Chang Biol 13:1860–1872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Porter JH, Parry ML, Carter TR (1991) The potential effects of climatic change on agricultural insect-pests. Agric For Meteorol 57:221–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Coops NC, Waring RH, Law BE (2005) Assessing the past and future distribution and productivity of ponderosa pine in the Pacific Northwest using a process model, 3-PG. Ecol Model 183(1):107–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Klok CJ, Chown SL (2001) Critical thermal limits, temperature tolerance and water balance of a sub-Antarctic kelp fly, Paractora dreuxi (Diptera: Helcomyzidae). J Insect Physiol 47(1):95–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Karuppaiah V, Sujayanad GK (2012) Impact of climate change on population dynamics of insect pests. World J Agric Sci 8(3):240–246Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    El-Sayed AAA (2005) Ecological studies on the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) and its natural enemies. PhD thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha UniversityGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    El-Sayed MT, Rustom ZMF (1960) Factor affecting termination of the resting stage of the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders. Bull Entomol Soc Egypt XLIV:265–282Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gutierrez AP, Ellis CK, Ghezelbash R (2006) Climatic limits of pink bollworm in Arizona and California: effects of climate warming. Acta Oecol 30(3):353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hahn DA, Denlinger DL (2007) Meeting the energetic demands of insect diapause: nutrient storage and utilization. J Insect Physiol 53:760–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bale JS, Hayward SAL (2010) Insect overwintering in a changing climate. J Exp Biol 213:980–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chapman RF (1998) The insects-structure and function.4th edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Harrington R, Fleming R, Woiwood IP (2001) Climate change impacts on insect management and conservation in temperate regions: can they be predicted? Agric For Entomol 3:233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sharma HC, Dhillon MK, Kibuka J, Mukuru SZ (2005) Plant defense responses to sorghum spotted stem borer, Chilopartellus under irrigated and drought conditions. Int Sorghum Millets Newsl 46:49–52Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nada MAM, Ragab MG (2010) Prediction of American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hüb.), depending on accumulated heat units in cotton fields. J Plant Prot Pathol 1(4):195–208Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Amer AEA, EL-Sayed AAA, Nada MA (2009) Development of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in relation to heat unit requirement. Egypt J Agric Res 87(3):667–674Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    El-Sayed AAA, Kandil MA, Amer AEA (2009) Seasonal fluctuation of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton & okra and heat units related. Egypt J Agric Res 87(4):909–921Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dahi HF (2007) Using heat accumulation and sex pheromone catches to predict the American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hub. field generations. J Agric Sci Mansoura Univ 32(4):3037–3044Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ibrahim SS (2012) Impact of certain new cotton genotypes on ecological and biological aspects of cotton leaf and bollworms. PhD thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 178 ppGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    EL-Mezayyen GA, Ragab MG (2014) Predicting the American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) field generations as influenced by heat unit accumulation. Egypt J Agric Res 92(1):91–99Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fand BB, Sul NT, Bal SK, Minhas PS (2015) Temperature impacts the development and survival of common cutworm (Spodoptera litura): simulation and visualization of potential population growth in India under warmer temperatures through life cycle modeling and spatial mapping. PLoS One 10(4):1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Guirguis MW, El-Feshawi AA, Watson WM, Nassef MA (1991) Occurrence and seasonal abundance of the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) infesting cotton. Egypt J Agric Res 69(1):63–72Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    El-Deeb MA, El-Zohairy MM, Abd-El Salam KA, Sherief EAH (1995) Population dynamics and testis development of male pink bollworm moths captured in sex pheromone traps sited in cotton fields at Shrakia Governorate. Zagazig J Agric Res 22(2):533–544Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Henneberry TJ, Flint HM, Bariola LA (1977) Temperature effects on mating, sperm transfer, oviposition, and egg viability of pink bollworm. Environ Entomol 6(4):513–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gergis MF, Moftah EA, Soliman MA, Khidr AA (1990) Temperature-dependent development and functional responses of pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.). Assiut J Agric Sci 21(3):119–128Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Soliman MA, Moftah EA, Gergis MF, Younis AM (1995) Temperature effect on adult biology, reproduction and population growth of pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). In: Proceeding Beltwide Cotton conference, San Antonio, 4–7 Jan, vol 2, pp 947–949Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yamamura K, Kiritani KA (1998) Simple method to estimate the potential increase in the number of generations under global warming in temperate zones. Appl Entomol Zool 33:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Petzoldt C, Seaman A (2010) Climate change effects on insects and pathogens. Climate change and agriculture: promoting practical and profitable responses, pp 6–16.
  52. 52.
    Abd El-Hafez A, Eissa MA, Nada MA, Gergis MF (2004) Effectiveness of Trichogramma evanescens for controlling pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) in cotton. In: Beltwide Cotton conference, 5–9 Jan, pp 1463–1469Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Abd El-Hafez A, Hassan KA, El-Sharkawy MAA, Zedan HA (2007) Biological control of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) and Earias insulana (Boisd.) in cotton fields at Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt by Augmentative release of Trichogramma evanescens (Westwood). J Agric Sci Mansoura Univ 32(3):2265–2306Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Abd El-Hafez A, El-Sharkawy MAA, Hassan KA (2014) Consequential effects of high temperature on biological characteristics influencing the Trichogramma evanescens Westwood and its progeny. Egypt J Biol Pest Control 24(1):57–63Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Young BA (1982) Cold stress as it affects animal production. J Anim Sci 52:154–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hill MG, Dymock JJ (1989) Impact of climate change: agricultural/horticultural systems. DSIR Entomology Division Submission to the New Zealand Climate Change Program, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Auckland, p 16Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gutierrez AP (2000) Crop system responses to climate change: pests and population dynamics. In: Raddy KR, Hodges HF (eds) Climate change and global crop productivity. CABI Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dhillon MK, Sharma HC (2008) Influence of temperature and Helicoverpa armigera food on survival and development of the parasitoid, Campoletis chlorideae. Indian J Plant Prot 36(2):240–244Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dhillon MK, Sharma HC (2009) Temperature influences the performance and effectiveness of field and laboratory strains of the ichneumonid parasitoid, Campoletis chlorideae. BioControl 54:743–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Newton AC, Johnson SN, Gregory PJ (2011) Implications of climate change for diseases, crop yields and food security. Euphytica 179:3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Price PW (1987) The role of natural enemies in insect populations. In: Barbosa P, Schultz JC (eds) Insect outbreaks. Academic, San Diego, pp 287–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sharma HC, Sullivan DJ, Bhatnagar VS (2002) Population dynamics and natural mortality factors of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separate (Walker) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) in south-Central India. Crop Prot 21:721–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Freier B, Triltsch H (1996) Climate chamber experiments and computer simulations on the influence of increasing temperature on wheat-aphid-predator interactions. Asp Appl Biol 45:293–298Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    NACCAP (2008) Climate change impacts on pest animals and weeds. Communicating Climate Change. National Agriculture and Climate Change Action Plan (NACCAP), Bureau of Meteorology, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australian Government, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Thomas CD, Cameron A, Green RE (2004) Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427:145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sharma HC, Srivastava CP, Durairaj C, Gowda CLL (2010) Pest management in grain legumes and climate change. In: Yadav SS, McNeil DL, Redden R, Patil SA (eds) Climate change and management of cool season grain legume crops. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 115–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Parry ML, Carter TR (1989) An assessment of the effects of climatic change on agriculture. Clim Chang 15:95–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Logan JA, Regniere J, Powell JA (2003) Assessing the impacts of global warming on forest pest dynamics. Front Ecol Environ 1:130–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Patterson DT, Westbrook JK, Joyce RJV, Lingren PD, Rogasik J (1999) Weeds, insects and disease. Clim Chang 43:711–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Diffenbaugh NS, Krupke CH, White MA, Alexander CE (2008) Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management. Environ Res Lett 3:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kannan R, James DA (2009) Effects of climate change on global diversity: a review of key literature. Trop Ecol 50:31–39Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Volney WJA, Fleming RA (2000) Climate change and impacts of boreal forest insects. Agric Ecosyst Environ 82:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rao MS, Khan MAM, Srinivas K, Vanaja M, Rao GGSN, Ramakrishna YS (2006) Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on insectplant interactions – a review. Agric Rev 27(3):200–207Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    IPCC (2007) Climate change – impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, Van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment. Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 976Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Beshr SM, Badr SA, Ahmad AA, Mohamed GH (2016) New record of host plants of invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Tinsley, 1898), (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Alexandria and Behaira Governorates. J Entomol 13(4):155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shehata IE (2017) On the biology and thermal developmental requirements of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Egypt. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect 50:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fand BB, Kumar M, Kamble AL (2014) Predicting the potential geographic distribution of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis in India based on MAXENT ecological niche model. J Environ Biol 35(5):973–982Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kumar R, Nagrare VS, Nitharwal M, Swami D, Prasad YG (2014) Within-plant distribution of an invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, and associated losses in cotton. Phytoparasitica 42(3):311–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Adams CJ, Beasley CA, Henneberry TJ (1995) Effects of temperature and wind speed on pink bollworm (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) moth captures during spring emergence. J Econ Entomol 88:1263–1270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Beasley CA, Adams CJ (1996) Field-based, degree-day model for Pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) development. J Econ Entomol 89(4):881–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Zhou X, Faktor O, Applebaum SW, Coll M (2000) Population structure of the pestiferous moth Helicoverpa armigera in Eastern Mediterranean using RAPD analysis. Heredity 85:251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dennis RLH (1993) Butterflies and climate change. Manchester University Press, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Johnson CG (1969) Migration and dispersal of insects by flight. Methuen, London. 763 ppGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Riley JR, Reynolds DR, Mukhopadhyay S, Ghosh MR, Sarkar TK (1995) Long distance migration of aphids and other small insects in northeast India. Eur J Entomol 92:639–653Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Palmqvist G (2001) Remarkable records of Macrolepidoptera in Sweden 2000. Entomologisk Tidskrift 122(1–2):41–55Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Palmqvist G (2002) Remarkable records of Macrolepidoptera in Sweden 2001. Entomologisk Tidskrift 123(1–2):53–63Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Riskallah MR (1984) Influence of post treatment temperature on the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to susceptible and resistant larvae of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Experientia 40(2):188–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Musser FP, Shelton AM (2005) The influence of post-exposure temperature on the toxicity of insecticides to Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Pest Manag Sci 61:508–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gregory PJ, Johnson SN, Newton AC, Ingram JSI (2009) Integrating pests and pathogens into the climate change/food security debate. J Exp Bot 60:2827–2838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Coviella CE, Trumble JT (1999) Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on insect-plant interactions. Conserv Biol 13:700–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Coley PD, Markham A (1998) Possible effects of climate change on plant/herbivore interactions in moist tropical forests. Clim Chang 39:455–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gore A (2006) An inconvenient truth: the planetary emergency of global warming and what we can do about it. Rodale Publisher, Emmaus, PAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Ahmed El-Sayed
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohamed Ahmed Nada
    • 1
  • Said Moussa Abd El-Fattah
    • 2
  1. 1.Plant Protection Research InstituteAgricultural Research CenterDokki, GizaEgypt
  2. 2.Plant Protection Department, Faculty of AgricultureZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

Personalised recommendations