Land, Air, and Water Resources on Sustainable Agricultural Development in Egypt

  • Atef GhandourEmail author
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 77)


The experiments were carried out at Moshtohor, Kalubia governorate (latitude, 30° 21′N; longitude, 31° 14′E; and elevation, 14 m), during 2015/2016 growing seasons to test model application of wheat under Egyptian conditions. A computer application program has been developed as Consumptive Use Program plus (CUP plus) as it is an application that can estimate crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and evapotranspiration of applied water (ETaw). The program uses daily and monthly measured weather data to estimate daily soil water balances for surfaces that account for evapotranspiration losses and water contributions from rainfall, seepage, and irrigation. Soil water-holding characteristics, effective rooting depths, and irrigation frequency were measured with rainfall and ETc data to calculate a daily water balance and determine rainfall and ETaw, which is equal to the seasonal cumulative ETc minus the effective rainfall. The main objective of this paper research is testing a mode for determining reference evapotranspiration (ETo), crop coefficient (Kc) values, crop evapotranspiration (ETc), and evapotranspiration of applied water (ETaw), which provides an estimate of the net irrigation water diversion needed to produce a crop. The obtained results show that ETo arrives to the maximum in May by 188.19 mm/month, but ETaw arrives at the maximum in April by 110.71 mm/month. The application outputs and includes a wide range of tables and charts that are useful for irrigation planning and decision-making.


Climate data Crop coefficient Evapotranspiration Program Water balance 



This research was made possible through grants from the STDF, Ministry of Scientific Research (Project No. 3864), New Approach for Measuring Crop Evapotranspiration and Updating Crop Coefficients in Egypt, and also the help and advice received from R. L. Snyder LAWR, UC Davis, CA, USA, and Morteza N. Orang, DWR, Sacramento, CA.


  1. 1.
    Morteza NO, Scott MJ, Richard LS (2011) CUPplus (daily soil water balance program). In: PROGRAMME DU BILAN QUOTIDIEN SOL-EAU. ICID 21st international congress on irrigation and drainage, Tehran, 15–23 Oct 2011, pp 409–421Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Snyder RL, Moratiel R, Zhenwei S, Swelam A, Jomaa I, Shapland T (2011) Evapotranspiration response to climate change. Acta Hortic 922:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ghandour A, Snyder RL, Frame K, Eching S, Temesgen B, Davidoff B (2006) Converting Kc values between ETo and ETr. In: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, ASCE-EWRI, Omaha, 21–25 May, pp 2033–2036.
  4. 4.
    Nassar A, Swelam A, Ghandour A, Abdel-Waheed M (2004) Validity and limits of saline irrigation water practices. In: Second regional conference on Arab water. Action plans for integrated development, Cairo, pp 192–203Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ghandour A (2016) Modeling evapotranspiration of applied water in the Egypt Delta and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA. Int J Eng Res Technol 5(10):85–89. ISSN: 2278-0181.
  6. 6.
    Bandyopadhyay PK, Mallick S (2002) Actual evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under varying moisture levels of humid tropical canal command area. Agric Water Manag 59:33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    French AN, Hunsaker D, Thorp K, Clarke T (2009) Evapotranspiration over a camelina crop at Maricopa, Arizona. Ind Crop Prod 29:289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pereira LS, Allen RG, Smith M, Raes D (2015) Crop evapotranspiration estimation with FAO56: past and future. Agric Water Manag 147:4–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anderson RG, Alfieri JG, Tirado-Corbalá R, Gartung J, McKee LG, Prueger JH, Wang D, Ayars JE, Kustas WP (2016) Assessing FAO-56 dual crop coefficients using eddy covariance flux partitioning. Agric Water Manag 179:92–102. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO irrigation and drainage paper 56. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Allen RG, Walter IA, Elliott RL, Howell TA, Itenfisu D, Jensen ME, Snyder RL (2005) The ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation. Technical Committee report to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers from the Task Committee on Standardization of Reference Evapotranspiration, p 173Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hargreaves GH, Samani ZA (1982) Estimating potential evapotranspiration. Technical note. J Irrig Drain Eng, ASCE 108(3):225–230Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hargreaves GH, Samani ZA (1985) Reference crop evapotranspiration from temperature. Appl Eng Agric 1(2):96–99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Doorenbos J, Pruitt WO (1977) Rev. “Crop water requirements.” FAO irrigation and drainage paper 24. FAO of the United Nations, Rome, p 144Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.On-Farm Irrigation and Drainage DepartmentAgriculture Engineering Research Institute (AEnRI), Agriculture Research Center (ARC)CairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations