Advertisement

Afghanistan Water Resources Policy in Central Asia

  • Igor S. ZonnEmail author
  • Aleksandr V. Semenov
  • Alla V. Nikonorova
  • Vladimir G. Egorov
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 85)

Abstract

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is one of the riparian states of the Amu Darya, the major transboundary river in Central Asia that takes its origin here and further on forms the border with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. Afghanistan accounts for nearly 14% or 246 thousand km2 of the Aral Sea watershed area (1,771.5 thousand km2) where about 20% of the country’s population live. Considering the regional instability that still exists, the tasks formulated in Afghanistan concerning water resource development may be accomplished relying only on the use of the Amu Darya water potential rivaled by Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. In the recent three decades, the interests of Afghanistan in the water field have been simply ignored. Owing to the military conflict, Afghanistan has not been a party to agreements on transboundary water resource management, although this country is their potential participant.

After the political situation in Afghanistan gets stabilized, the economic development of this country will be targeted to ensuring its food security, first of all, by way of further growth of irrigated agricultural lands which invariably will demand more water intake from Amu Darya that has been already overexploited. This will worsen the situation with water supply in the Central Asian countries which will become a source of trouble and will have serious implications for the relations of Afghanistan with other Central Asian states. In the future the joint use of Afghan river flows will be one of the most complicated challenges for interstate and, primarily, economic relations.

Keywords

Afghanistan Conflict of interests Interstate relations Irrigation Water resources 

References

  1. 1.
    Palau RG (2012) The decision to plant poppies: irrigation, profits and alternatives in Afghanistan. Civil-Military Fusion Center, p 12Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    FAO (2012) Afghanistan. Irrigation in Central Asia in figures. In: AquaSTAT Research, pp 99–125Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gureshi AS (2002) Water resources management in Afghanistan: the issues and options. IWMI, Vientiane, p 24Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sarsambekov TT, Nurushev AN, Kozhakov AE, Ospanov MO (2004) Use and protection of transboundary rivers in Central Asian countries. Almaty, p 272Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Habib H (2014) Water related problems in Afghanistan. Int J Educ Stud 1(3):137–144Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Natural Resource Management and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan (2013) UNEP, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zonn IS (2002) Water resources of northern Afghanistan and their future use. Presented at the informal planning meeting, Philadelphia, 18–19 June, p 11Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Martin Miguel AP (2017) A water history of Central Asia. Security and human rights to water in Central Asia. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Snesarev AE (2002) Afghanistan. Russkaya Panorama, Moscow, p 74Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marsden P (2001) The Taliban. War and religion in Afghanistan. Zed Books, London, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Klemm W, Shobair SS (2011) The Afghan part of Amu Darya Basin. Impact of irrigation in northern Afghanistan on water use in the Amu Darya BasinGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ahmad M, Wasiq M (2004) Water resources development in Northern Afghanistan and implications for Amu Darya Basin. World Bank Working Paper no. 36Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    King M, Stuyrtevagen B (2010) Efficient use of water resources of Afghanistan. New possibilities for regional cooperation. EastWest Institute, New York, p 3Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhiltsov SS (2016) Politics of the Central Asian countries in the use of transboundary rivers. In: Water resources of Central Asia and their use: materials of the international scientific and practical conference devoted to summing up of the water for life decade declared by UN, Almaty, 22–24 Sept 2016, vol 2. Institute of Geography, Almaty, pp 288–296Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maddocks A, Samnel Young R, Reig P (2015) Ranking the world’s most water-stressed countries in 2040. World Resources Institute, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gwynne Dyer (2010) Climate wars. The Susijn Agence Ltd. London, UK EditionGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lipiaynen T, Smith D (2013) International cooperation in water initiatives in Central Asia. EUCAM Working Report 15Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor S. Zonn
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aleksandr V. Semenov
    • 2
  • Alla V. Nikonorova
    • 2
  • Vladimir G. Egorov
    • 3
  1. 1.Engineering Research Production Center for Water Management, Land Reclamation and Ecology “Soyuzvodproject,”MoscowRussia
  2. 2.S.Yu. Witte Moscow UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.G.V. Plekhanov Russian Economic UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations