Nutritional Strategies to Produce Organic and Healthy Poultry Products

  • Mahmoud AlagawanyEmail author
  • Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
  • Mayada R. Farag
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 77)


Agricultural poultry products including eggs and meat are important sources of crude protein, lipids, minerals, and micronutrients that play a critical role in basic nutrition. Traditionally, meat and eggs are associated with negative factors in human health, mainly due to their content of triglyceride and cholesterol. It is well known that the response of serum cholesterol levels in human to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on many factors like hormonal factors, genetic makeup, ethnicity, and the nutritional condition of the consumer. Recently, there has been increasing demands for organic food, which are expected to continue to increase in the near future, due to their ability to reduce the risks of many diseases and enhance the physical and mental well-being of the consumer, besides satisfying hunger and supplying substantial nutrients. Organic foods of animal origin are produced by feeding the animal on a specific diet or by using some techniques, like induced genetic mutation, genetic engineering, cross-breeding, etc. with an aim to guarantee the presence of nutrients, which may be useful to human health. The organic foods of poultry origin may only include organic eggs and organic chickens. To produce organic/designer food, it is essential to study the available and sustainable nutritional strategies and evaluate knowledge-based alternatives of growth-enhancers as well as develop more efficient models and protocols for quantification of the bioavailability and bio-accessibility of bioactive compounds for health studies in animal and human. Organic eggs, viz., specialty, vegetarian, immune-powered, and functional and designer eggs, do have increased content of vitamins, minerals, and essential pigments like carotenoids, lowered cholesterol and fat, balanced ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids, antibacterial active principles, and an additional boost of antibodies. On the other hand, organic meat contained a higher concentration of tocopherol and conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, and amino acids; all these factors contribute to the maintenance and the improvement of consumer health. This chapter offers a simple overview of the significance and health benefits of organic poultry products, and it explores the possibilities of the production and development of organic food by technological strategies.


Agriculture Cholesterol Eggs Health Meat Omega-3 PUFAs Organic products Poultry 


  1. 1.
    Sundrum A (2001) Sundrum organic livestock farming: a critical review. Livest Prod Sci 67:207–215Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Siró I, Kápolna E, Kápolna B, Lugasi A (2008) Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance – a review. Appetite 51:456–467Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman B, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS (2003) Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors. JAMA 289:76–79Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eilat-Adar S, Sinai T, Yosefy C, Henkin Y (2013) Nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention. Nutrients 5:3646–3683Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alagawany M, Abd El-Hack ME, Arif M, Ashour EA (2016) Individual and combined effects of crude protein, methionine, and probiotic levels on laying hen productive performance and nitrogen pollution in the manure. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(22):22906–22913Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alagawany M, Abd El-Hack ME, Farag MR, Tiwari R, Sachan S, Karthik K, Dhama K (2016) Positive and negative impacts of dietary protein levels in laying hens. Asian J Anim Sci 10(2):165–174Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anderson J, Baird P, Davis R, Ferreri S, Knudtson M, Koraym A, Waters V, Williams C (2009) Health benefits of dietary fiber. Nutr Rev 67(4):188–205Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lzamora S, Salvatori D, Tapia S, Lopez-Malo A, Welti-Chanes J, Fito P (2005) Novel functional foods from vegetable matrices impregnated with biologically active compounds. J Food Eng 67:205–214Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Torrisen O (2000) Dietary delivery of carotenoids. In: Decker E, Faustman C, Lopez-Bote C (eds) Antioxidants in muscle foods – nutritional strategies to improve quality. Wiley, New York, NY, pp 289–314Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Akbarian A, Abolghasem G, Ahmadi S, Hossein M (2011) Effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk cholesterol, antioxidant status and performance of laying hens. J Appl Anim Sci 39:19–21Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Farag MR, Alagawany MM, Dhama K (2014) Antidotal effect of turmeric (curcuma longa) against endosulfan-induced cytogenotoxicity and immunotoxicity in broiler chicks. Int J Pharmacol 10(8):429–439Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alagawany M, Mahrose KHM (2014) Influence of different levels of certain essential amino acids on the performance, egg quality criteria and economics of Lohmann Brown Laying Hens. Asian J Poult Sci 8(4):82–96Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alagawany M, Abd El-Hack ME, Laudadio V, Tufarelli V (2014) Effect of low-protein diets with crystalline amino acid supplementation on egg production, blood parameters and nitrogen balance in laying Japanese quails. Avian Biol Res 7(4):235–243Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roberfroid M (2002) Global view on functional foods: European perspectives. Br J Nutr 88:S133–S138Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Adedokun SA, Jaynes P, Abd El-Hack ME, Payne RL, Applegate TJ (2014) Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal and soybean meal in laying hens and broilers. Poult Sci 93:420–428Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Swiatkiewicz S, Arczewska-Wlosek A, Jozefiak D (2014) Feed enzymes, probiotic, or chitosan can improve the nutritional efficacy of broiler chicken diets containing a high level of distillers dried grains with soluble. Livest Sci 163:110–119Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Castellini C, Dal Bosco A, Mugnai C, Bernardini M (2003) Performance and behaviour of chickens with different growing rate reared according to the organic system. Italian J Anim Sci 1:291Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Castellini C (2005) Organic poultry production system and meat characteristics. XVII th European Symposium on the Quality of Poultry Meat XI th European Symposium on the Quality of Eggs and Egg Products Doorwerth, The Netherlands, 23-26 May 2005Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Castellini C, Mugnai C, Dal Bosco A (2002) Effect of organic production system on broiler carcass and meat quality. Meat Sci 60:219Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Castellini C, Mugnai C, Dal Bosco A (2002) Meat quality of three chicken genotypes reared according to the organic system. Italian J Food Sci 14:401Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Horsted K (2006) Increased foraging in organic layers. Ph.D., Department of Agroecology, University of Aarhus, Faculty of Agricultural SciencesGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alagawany M, Abou Kasem DE (2014) The combined effects of dietary lysine and methionine intake on productive performance, egg component yield, egg composition and nitrogen retention in Lohmann Brown hens. Egypt J Nutr feeds 17(2):400–408Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    FDA (2002) Food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals: selenium yeast. Fed Reg 67:46850Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Taylor D (2004) Funky chicken: consumers exposed to arsenic in poultry. Environ Health Perspect 112(1):A50Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Leeson S, Summers JD (2001) Nutrition of the chicken. University Books, GuelphGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alagawany M, El-Hindawy MM, Attia AI, Farag MR, Abd El-Hack ME (2015) Influence of dietary choline levels on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing Japanese quail. Adv Anim Vet Sci 3(2):109–115Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pesti GM (2009) Impact of dietary amino acid and crude protein levels in broiler feeds on biological performance. J Appl Poultry Res 18:477–486Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Goldberg I (1994) Introduction. In: Goldberg I (ed) Functional foods. Designer foods, pharmafoods, nutraceuticals. Chapman and Hall, Springer, London, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lock AL, Bauman DE (2004) Modifying milk fat composition of dairy cows to enhance fatty acids beneficial to human health. Lipids 39(12):1197–1206Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Laudadio V, Nahashon SN, Tufarelli V (2012) Growth performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl broilers fed micronized-dehulled pea (Pisum sativum L.) as a substitute for soybean meal. Poult Sci 91(11):2988–2996Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cavani, C., Petracci, M., 2008. Qualità della carne di coniglio. In: I. Romboli, M. Marzoni Fecia di Cossato, A. Schiavone, L. Zaniboni, S. Cerolini (eds.) Avicoltura e Coniglicoltura. Point Veterinaire Italie, Milan, pp 503–517Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Barroeta AC (2006) Nutritive value of poultry meat: relationship between vitamin E and PUFA. Worlds Poult Sci J 63:277–284Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hernández P (2008) Enhancement of nutritional quality and safety in rabbit meat. Proc. 9th World Rabbit Congress, Verona, Italy, pp 1287–1299Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grashorn M (2007) Functionality of poultry meat. J Appl Poultry Res 16:99–106Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kassis NM, Gigliotti JC, Beamer SK, Tou JC, Jaczynski J (2012) Characterization of lipids and antioxidant capacity of novel nutraceutical egg products developed with omega-3-rich oils. J Sci Food Agric 92(1):66–73Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Weggemans RM, Zock PL, Katan MB (2001) Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans: a meta analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 73:885–891Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Koning AJ, Mol TH (1989) Lipid determination in fish meal: an investigation of three standard methods applied to stabilized and non-stabilized anchovy meals at increasing stages of maturity. J Sci Food Agric 46:259–266Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Galobart J, Barroeta AC, Baucells MD, Guardiola F (2001) Lipid oxidation in fresh and spray-dried eggs enriched with omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during storage as affected by dietary vitamin E and canthaxanthin supplementation. Poult Sci 80:327–337Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ayerza R, Coates W (2001) Omega-3 enriched eggs: the influence of dietary alpha-linolenic fatty acid source on egg production and composition. Can J Anim Sci 81:355–362Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fredriksson S, Elwinger K, Pickova J (2006) Fatty acid and carotenoids composition of egg yolk as an effect of microalgae addition to feed formula for laying hens. Food Chem 99:530–537Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    García-Rebollar P, Cachaldora P, Alvarez C, De Blas C, Méndez J (2008) Effect of the combined supplementation of diets with increasing levels of fish and linseed oils on yolk fat composition and sensorial quality of eggs in laying hens. Anim Feed Sci Technol 140:337–348Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hayat Z, Cherian G, Pasha TN, Khattak FM, Jabbar MA (2009) Effect of feeding flax and two types of antioxidants on egg production, egg quality, and lipid composition of eggs. J Appl Poultry Res 18:541–551Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Oliveira DD, Baio NC, Canado SV, Grimaldi R, Souza MR, Lara LJC, Lan AMQ (2010) Effects of lipid sources in the diet of laying hens on the fatty acid profiles of egg yolks. Poult Sci 89:2484–2490Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jiang Z, Ahn DU, Ladner L, Sim JS (1992) Influence of full fat flax and sunflower seeds on internal and sensory quality of yolk. Poult Sci 71:378–382Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Martinchik AN, Baturin AK, Zubtsov VV, Molofeev V (2012) Nutritional value and functional properties of flaxseed. Vopr Pitan 81(3):4–10Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cavani C, Petracci M, Trocino A, Xiccato G (2009) Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality. Italian J Anim Sci 8:741–750Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Peiretti PG, Meineri G (2008) Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplements. Meat Sci 80:1116–1121Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhang W, Xiao S, Samaraweera H, Lee EJ, Ahn DU (2010) Improving functional value of meat products. Meat Sci 86(1):15–31Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zotte DA, Szendro Z (2011) The role of rabbit meat as functional food. Meat Sci 88(3):319–331Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Soultos N, Tzikas Z, Christaki E, Papageorgiou K, Steris V (2009) The effect of dietary oregano essential oil on microbial growth of rabbit carcasses during refrigerated storage. Meat Sci 81:474–478Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stepaniak J (2000) Being vegan: living with conscience, conviction, and compassion. McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, p 7Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Alagawany M, Abd El-Hack ME (2015) The effect of rosemary herb as a dietary supplement on performance, egg quality, serum biochemical parameters, and oxidative status in laying hens. J Anim Feed Sci 24(4):341–347Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sitohy MZ, Mahgoub SA, Osman AO (2012) In vitro and in situ antimicrobial action and mechanism of glycinin and its basic subunit. Int J Food Microbiol:19–29Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Iplock A, Aggett P, Ashwell M, Bornet F, Fern E, Roberfroid M (1999) Scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe: consensus document. Br J Nutr 81(suppl. 1):S1–S27Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shwell M (2002) In: Walker R (ed) Concepts of functional foods. ILSI Europe Concise Monograph Series. International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Marcel B, Roberfroid M (2002) Functional foods: concepts and application to inulin and oligofructose. Br J Nutr 87(2):S139–S143Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Raghuveer C, Tandon RV (2009) Consumption of functional food and our health concerns. Pak J Physiol 5(1):76–83Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Miguel M, Aleixandre A (2006) Antihypertensive peptides derived from egg proteins. J Nutr 136:1457–1460Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Surai PF, MacPherson A, Speake BK, Sparks NHC (2000) Designer egg evaluation in a controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:298–305Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Surai PF, Sparks NHC (2001) Designer eggs: from improvement of egg composition to functional food. Trends Food Sci Technol 12(1):7–16Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Aiman M (2000) The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 356(9225):233–241Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Surai PF, Yaroshenko FA, Dvorska JE, Sparks NHC (2003) Selenium enriched eggs can improve human diet. Feed Mix 11:32–34Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fisinin VI, Papazyan TT, Surai PF (2009) Producing selenium-enriched eggs and meat to improve the selenium status of the general population. Crit Rev Biotechnol 29(1):18–28Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Pryor W (2000) Vitamin E and heart disease: basic science to clinical intervention trials. Free Radic Biol Med 28(1):141–164Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Deka RS, Kayastha TB (2011) How about a designer egg. Sci Report:52–54Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lopez-Bote CJ, Sanz Arias R, Rey AI, Castano A, Isabel B, Thos J (1998) Effect of free-range feeding on n–3 fatty acid and α-tocopherol content and oxidative stability of eggs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 72(1):33–40Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hamosh M (2008) Fatty acids and growth and development. In: Chow CK (ed) Fatty acids in foods and their implications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 899–933Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Marshall AC, Kubena KS, Hinton KR, Hargis PS, Van Elswyk ME (1994) N-3 fatty acid enriched table eggs: a survey of consumer acceptability. Poult Sci 73:1334–1340Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Abdel-Nour DN, Ngadi BM (2011) Detection of omega-3 fatty acid in designer eggs using hyper spectral imaging. Int J Food Sci Nutr 62(4):418–422Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Shapira DN, Weill P, Loewenbach BR (2008) Egg fortification with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): nutritional benefits versus high n-6 PUFA western diets, and consumer acceptance. Isr Med Assoc 10(4):262–265Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Uauy R, Peirano P, Hoffman D, Mena P, Birch D, Birch E (1999) Role of essential fatty acids in the function of the developing nervous system. Lipids 31:S167–S176Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ebeid T, Eid Y, Saleh A, Abd El-Hamid H (2008) Ovarian follicular development, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative status and immune response in laying hens fed fish oil-supplemented diets to produce n-3-enriched eggs. Animal 2:84–91Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schreiner M, Hulan HW, Razzazi-Fazeli E, Bohm J, Iben C (2004) Feeding laying hens seal blubber oil: effects on egg yolk incorporation, stereospecific distribution of omega-3 fatty acids, and sensory aspects. Poult Sci 83:462–473Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Meluzzi A, Sirri F, Manfreda G, Tallarico N, Franchini A (2000) Effects of dietary vitamin E on the quality of table eggs enriched with n-3 long chain fatty acids. Poult Sci 79:539–545Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Simpoulos A (2000) Human requirement for N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poult Sci 79:961–970Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cherian G, Sim JS (1992) Omega-3 fatty acid and cholesterol content of newly hatched chicks from linolenic acid enriched eggs. Lipids 27:706–710Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pappas AC, Acamovic T, Surai PF, McDeviitt RM (2006) Maternal organo-selenium compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids affect progeny performance and levels of selenium and docosahexaenoic acid in the chick tissues. Poult Sci 85:1610–1620Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Leeson S, Summers JD (2005) Commercial poultry nutrition. University Books, GuelphGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yalcyn H, Ünal MK (2010) The enrichment of hen eggs with o-3 fatty acid. J Med Food 13(3):610–614Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chen W, Jiang YY, Wang JP, Yan BX, Huang YQ, Wang ZX (2015) Effect of flaxseed on the fatty acid profile of egg yolk and antioxidant status of their neonatal offspring in Huoyan geese. Animal 9(11):1749–1755Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bhattacharya A, Lawrence RA, Krishnan A, Zaman K, Sun D, Fernandes G (2003) Effect of dietary n-3 and n-6 oils with and without food restriction on activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in livers of cyclopho-sphamide treated autoimmune-prone NZB/W female mice. J Am Coll Nutr 22:388–399Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nieto N, Fernández MI, Torres MI, Ríos A, Suárez MD, Gil A (1998) Dietary (n-3) and (n-6) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids affected cellular antioxidant defense system in rats with experimental ulcerative colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Dig Dis Sci 43:2676–2687Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bautista-Ortega J, Goeger DE, Cherian G (2009) Egg yolk omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids modify tissue lipid components, antioxidant status, and ex vivo eicosanoid production in chick cardiac tissue. Poult Sci 88:1167–1175Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Butarbutar TB (2004) Fatty acid and cholesterol in eggs: a review. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35(4):1036–1038Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Namara D (2000) Dietary cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Biochim Biophys Acta 2529:310–320Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Laudadio V, Ceci E, Lastella NMB, Introna M, Tufarelli V (2014) Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality. Poult Sci 93(7):1868–1874Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mourao JL, Ponte PIP, Prates JAM, Centeno MSJ, Ferreira LMA, Soares MAC, Fontes CMGA (2006) Use of β-glucanases and β-1, 4-xylanases to supplement diets containing alfalfa and rye for laying hens: effects on bird performance and egg quality. J Appl Poultry Res 15:256–265Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Chen W, Jiang YY, Wang JP, Huang YQ, Wang ZX (2014) Effects of dietary flaxseed meal on production performance, egg quality, and hatchability of Huoyan geese and fatty acids profile in egg yolk and thigh meat from their offspring. Livest Sci 164:102–108Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Botosoglou NA, Yannakopoulos AL, Fletouris DJ, Tserveni-Goussi AS, Psomas LE (1998) Yolk fatty acid composition and cholesterol content on response to level and form of dietary flaxseed. J Agric Food Chem 46:4652–4656Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Petrović M, Gačić M, Karačić V, Gottstein Z, Mazija H, Medić H (2012) Enrichment of eggs in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by feeding hens with different amount of linseed oil in diet. Food Chem 135:1563–1568Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Abd El-Hack ME, Mahgoub SA, Alagawany M, Ashour EA (2017) Improving productive performance and mitigating harmful emissions from laying hen excreta via feeding on graded levels of corn DDGS with or without Bacillus subtilis probiotic. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cucco M, Guasco B, Malacarne G, Ottonelli R (2007) Effects of β-carotene on adult immune condition and antibacterial activity in the eggs of the Grey Partridge (Perdix perdix). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 147:1038–1046Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ribaya-Mercado JD, Blumberg JB (2004) Lutein and zeaxanthin and their potential roles in disease prevention. J Am Coll Nutr 23:567S–587SGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Dong XF, Gao WW, Tong JM, Jia HQ, Sa RN, Zhang Q (2007) Effect of polysavone (alfalfa extract) on abdominal fat deposition and immunity in broiler chickens. Poult Sci 86:1955–1959Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sim JS (1998) Designer eggs and their nutritional and functional significance. World Rev Nutr Diet 83:89–101Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Roberson KD, Kalbfleisch JL, Pan W, Charbeneau RA (2005) Effect of corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles at various levels on performance of laying hens and yolk color. Int J Poult Sci 4:44–51Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Shalash SMM, Abou El-Wafa S, Hassan RA, Ramadan NA, Mohamed MS, El-Gabry HE (2010) Evaluation of distillers dried grains with solubles as feed ingredient in laying hen diets. Int J Poult Sci 9:537–545Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Deniz G, Gencoglu H, Gezen SS, Turkmen II, Orman A, Kara C (2013) Effects of feeding corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles with and without enzyme cocktail supplementation to laying hens on performance, egg quality, selected manure parameters, and feed cost. Livest Sci 152:174–181Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Akdemir F, Orhan C, Sahin N, Sahin K, Hayirli A (2012) Tomato powder in laying hen diets: effects on concentrations of yolk carotenoids and lipid peroxidation. Br Poultry Sci 53:675–680Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lumpkins BS, Batal A, Dale N (2005) Use of distillers dried grains plus solubles in laying hen diets. J Appl Poultry Res 14:25–31Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Fernandez-Gines JM, Fernandez-Lopez J, Sayas-Barbera E, Perez-Alvaez JA (2005) Meat products as functional foods: a review. J Food Sci 70:37–43Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hoffmann M, Waszkiewicz-Robak B, Świderski F (2010) Functional food of animal origin. Meat and meat products. Nauka Przyr Technol 4(5):63.11AGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    López-Ferrer S, Baucells MD, Barroeta AC, Blanch A, Grashorn MA (1999) N-3 enrichment of chicken meat using fish oil: alternative substitution with rapeseed and linseed oils. Poult Sci 78:356–365Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rosen JD (2010) A review of the nutrition claims made by proponents of organic food. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 9(3):270–277Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ruusunen M, Puolanne E (2005) Reducing sodium intake from meat products. Meat Sci 70:531–541Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Simopoulos AP (2006) Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Biomed Pharmacother 60(9):502–507Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Riediger ND, Azordegan N, Harris-Janz S, Ma DW, Suh M, Moghadasian MH (2009) ‘Designer oils’ low in n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio beneficially modifies cardiovascular risks in mice. Eur J Nutr 48(5):307–314Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kralik Z, Kralik G, Biazik E, Straková E, Suchý P (2013) Effects of organic selenium in broiler feed on the content of selenium and fatty acid profile in lipids of thigh muscle tissue. Acta Vet Brno 82:277–282Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmoud Alagawany
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
    • 1
  • Mayada R. Farag
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Poultry, Faculty of AgricultureZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  2. 2.Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

Personalised recommendations