Advertisement

Sediment Contaminants in Northern Egyptian Coastal Lakes

  • L. I. MohamedeinEmail author
  • M. A. El-Sawy
  • M. A. Bek
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 71)

Abstract

Mariout, Edku, Burullus, El-Manzala, and Bardawil lakes are the five northern lakes connected to the Mediterranean Sea. They suffer from different types of serious problems because they receive contaminants from drains. Consequently, those lakes are under increasing threat from eutrophication, pollution, and destruction of surrounding wetlands. Sediments of lakes deposit small particles because of the relatively unmoving waters in them. Sediments in these lakes are considered to be the sink of these different contaminants. The inorganic contaminants like heavy metals had been determined in the sediments of the lakes. The organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are found to bind strongly to sediments. In Lake El-Manzala, Hg showed the highest values and alarming toxicity levels, and it is considered as one of the most hazardous. Lakes Burullus, Edku, and Bardawil recorded highest values of some heavy metals, while Lake Mariout got the highest ranged values for the organic contaminants. Continuing observing and monitoring of northern lakes is very important to resolve the existing contamination problems and to avoid its complication in the future.

Keywords

Biodiversity Contaminant Drain Egyptian Heavy metals Lakes Northern Sedimentations 

References

  1. 1.
    Alloways BG, Ayres DC (1993) Chemical principals of environmental pollution.2nd edn. Champman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jones KC (1991) Contaminant trends in soils and crops. Environ Pollut 69:311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moore J (1991) Inorganic contaminants of surface water research and monitoring priorities. In: DeSanto RS (ed) Springer series on environmental management. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Birks HH, Peglar SM, Boomer I, Flower RJ, Ramdani M, with contribution from Appleby PG, Bjune AE, Patrick ST, Kraı¨em MM, Fathi AA, Abdelzaher HMA (2001) Palaeolimnological responses of nine North African lakes in the CASSRINA Project to recent environmental changes and human impact detected by plant macrofossil, pollen, and faunal analyses. Aquatic Ecol 35:405–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abdel-Moati AR, AA EL-S (1996) Man-made impact on the geochemistry of the Nile delta lakes. A study of metal concentrations in sediment. J Water Air Soil Pollut 90:413–429Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Megahan WF (1999) Sediment pollution. In: Environmental geology. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 552–553Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zalat A, Vildary SS (2007) Environmental change in Northern Egyptian Delta lakes during the late Holocene, based on diatom analysis. J Paleolimnol 37:273–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sestini G (1993) Implication of climatic changes for the Nile Delta. In: Jeftic L, Milliman JD, Sestini G (eds) Environmental and Social Impacts of Climate Change and Sea Level Rise in the Mediterranean Region. E. ArnoldGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    USAID Project N° 263-0100 (1996) Hydrologic Studies of Lake Mariout Technical Memorandum N°8Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Okbah MA, El-Gohary SE (2002) Physical and chemical characteristics of Lake Edku Water, Egypt. Mediterr Mar Sci 3/2:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shakweer L (2006) Impact of drainage water discharge on the water chemistry of Lake Edku. Egypt J Aquat Res 32(1):264–282Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Soliman AH (1983) Quantitative and qualitative studies of the plankton of Lake Edku in relation to the local environmental conditions and to Fish food. M.Sc. Thesis, Fac Sci Alex Univ, 220 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saad MAH (1988) Studies on the core sediments of Lake Edku, Egypt. Rapp Comm Int Mer Medit 31:2Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moussa AA, El-Sayed MA (1990) Geochemistry of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in sediment cores from Lake Edku. Rapp Comm Int Mer Medit 32(1):67Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shridah MMA (1992) Recent observations on some hydrographic and chemical aspects of Lake Edku waters; Egypt. Bull High Inst Publ Health XXII(1):185–201Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shakweer LM, El-Ebiary EH, Zaki MA (1998) Comparative study on the major biochemical constituents in the muscles of Mugil Cephalus inhabiting the Mediterranean water, the northern delta lakes and fish farms of Egypt. Bull Nat Ins Oceanogr Fish, Egypt 24:79–101Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nour El-Din NM (2000) Study of the chemical composition of suspended matter and adsorbed elements in Lake Edku. M.Sc. Thesis. Fac Sci Alex Uni, 219 pGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Waheshi YAA, El-Gammal MI, Ibrahim MS, Okbah MA (2017) Distribution and assessment of heavy metal levels using geoaccumulation index and pollution load index in Lake Edku sediments, Egypt. Int J Environ Monit Anal 5(1):1–8Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    El-Shinnawy I (2002) Al-Burullus Wetland’s Hydrological Study. MedWet Coast, Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), CairoGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Eid EM (2012) Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.: its population biology and nutrient cycle in Lake Burullus, a Ramsar site in Egypt. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, SaarbrückenGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shaltout KH, Khalil M (2005) Lake Burullus: Burullus Protected Area. Publication of National Biodiversity Unit No. 13. Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), CairoGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    EMI (2012) Egyptian ministry of irrigation, organization of mechanic and electricity, the amount of agricultural drainage water which entered the lake Burullus during 2012. Central Administration of the Central Delta Stations, Kafr El-Sheikh, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    El-Amier YA, Elnaggar AA, El-Alfy MA (2017) Evaluation and mapping spatial distribution of bottom sediment heavy metal contamination in Burullus Lake, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 4(1):55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Elshemy M, Khadr M (2015) Hydrodynamic impacts of Egyptian coastal lakes due to climate change-example Manzala lake. In: Eighteenth international water technology conference, IWTC18 Sharm ElSheikh, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    El-Badry AEMA (2016) Distribution of heavy metals in contaminated water and bottom deposits of Manzala Lake, Egypt. J Environ Analyt Toxicol 6(1):1–8Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gohera ME, Abdoa MH, Bayoumyb WA, El-Ashkara TM (2017) Some heavy metal contents in surface water and sediment as a pollution index of El-Manzala Lake, Egpt. J Basic Environ Sci 2:210–225Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    CEDARE (2007) Alexandria Lake Mariout Integrated Management – Stocktaking Analysis reportGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Loizeau JL, Stanley DJ (1994) Bottom sediment patterns evolving in polluted Mariut lake, Nile delta, Egypt. J Coast Res 416–439Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Donia N (2015) Lake Maryut monitoring using remote sensing. Eighteenth international water technology conference, IWTC18Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hassan MI, Badran HM (2016) Pioneering investigation of the characteristics and elemental concentrations in the environment of the declining Wadi Maryut Lake. Environ Monit Assess 188(3):181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    De Cosson A (1935) Mareotis; being a short account of the history and ancient monuments of the north-western desert of Egypt and of lake Mareotis. London Country Life LtdGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Khalil MK, El Zokm GM, Fahmy MA, Said TO, Shreadah MA (2013) Geochemistry of some major and trace elements in sediments of Edku and Mariut Lakes, North, Egypt. World Appl Sci J 24(3):282–294Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Soliman NF, El Zokm GM, Okbah MA (2017) Evaluation of phosphorus bioavailability in El Mex Bay and Lake Mariut sediments. Int J Sediment Res 32(3):432–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Luthy RG (2004) Organic contaminants in the environment: challenges for the water/environmental engineering community. In: Water and sustainable development: opportunities for the chemical sciences – a workshop report to the chemical sciences roundtable, p 40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83725/?report=printable
  35. 35.
    Barakat AO, Mostafa A, Wade TL, Sweet ST, El Sayed NB (2012) Spatial distribution and temporal trends of persistent organochlorine pollutants in sediments from Lake Maryut, Alexandria, Egypt. Mar Pollut Bull 64(2):395–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Khairy MA (2013) Assessment of priority phenolic compounds in sediments from an extremely polluted coastal wetland (Lake Maryut, Egypt). Environ Monit Assess 185(1):441–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nessim RB, El-Deek MS (1995) The influence of land-based sources on the nutrients level in Abu- Qir. Bay. J Bull High Inst Public Health Egypt 25(1):209–220Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yousef AAW, Maie IE, Mahmoud SI, Mohamed AAO (2017) Distribution and assessment of heavy metal levels using geoaccumulation index and pollution load index in Lake Edku sediments, Egypt. Int J Environ Monit Anal 5(1):1–8.  https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijema.20170501.11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shawer AI, Ibrahim MSH (2010) The lacustrine environmental system and its problems. Cairo Uni 1–21Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Masoud MS, Elewa AA, Ali AE, Mohamed EA (2005) Distribution of some metal concentrations in water and sediments of Lake Edku, Egypt. Bull Chem Tech Macedonia 24(1):21–34Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Saeed SM, Shaker IM (2008) Assessment of heavy metals pollution in water and sediments and their effect on Oreochromis niloticus in the northern delta lakes, Egypt. In: 8th international symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, vol 2008, pp 475–490Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mona KK, El Zokm GM, Fahmy MA, Said TO, Shreadah MA (2013) Geochemistry of some major and trace elements in sediments of Edku and Mariut Lakes. World Applied Sciences Journal 24(3):282–294Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    El Zokm GM, Okbah MA, Younis AM (2015) Assessment of heavy metals pollution using AVS-SEM and fractionation techniques in Edku Lagoon sediments, Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. J Environ Sci Health A 50(6):571–584Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Abdallah MAM, Elmagd Morsy FA (2013) Persistent organochlorine pollutants and metals residues in sediment and freshwater fish species cultured in a shallow lagoon, Egypt. Environ Technol 34(16):2389–2399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Farag H, El-Gamal A (2011) Assessment of the eutrophic status of Lake Burullus (Egypt) using remote sensing. Int J Environ Sci Eng 2:61–74Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dumont HJ, El-Shabrawy GM (2007) Lake Borullus of the Nile Delta: a short history and an uncertain future. AMBIO J Hum Environ, 36(8), 677–682.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Masoud MS, Fahmy MA, Ali AE, Mohamed EA (2011) Heavy metal speciation and their accumulation in sediments of Lake Burullus, Egypt. Afr J Environ Sci Tech 5(4):280–298Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Samy YM, El-Bady MSM (2014) Comparative study of the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Burullus and Bardawil lake sediments, Mediterranean Sea Coast, Egypt. Life Science Journal 11(9):686–700Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    El-Amier YA, Elnaggar AA, El-Alfy MA (2017) Evaluation and mapping spatial distribution of bottom sediment heavy metal contamination in Burullus Lake, Egypt. Egypt J Basic Appl Sci 4(1):55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nafea EMA, Zyada MA (2015) Biomonitoring of heavy metals pollution in Lake Burullus, Northern Delta, Egypt. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 9(1):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Said TO (2007) Petroleum hydrocarbons in Lake Burullus, Egypt. In: Ozhan E (ed) Proceeding of the 8th international conference on the Mediterranean coastal environment, MEDCOAST 2007, 13–17 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp 907–916Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Said TO, El Moselhy KM, Rashad AAM, Shreadah MA (2008) Organochlorine contaminants in water, sediment and fish of Lake Burullus, Egyptian Mediterranean Sea. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 81(2):136–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Khalil MT (1990) The physical and chemical environment of Lake Manzala, Egypt. Hydrobiologia, 196(3), 193–199.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    El-Badry AEMA, Khalifa MM (2017) Geochemical assessment of pollution at Manzala Lake, Egypt: special mention to environmental and health effects of Arsenic, Selenium, Tin and Antimony. J Appl Sci 17:72–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Randazzo G, Stanley DJ, Di Geronimo SI, Amore C (1998) Human-induced sedimentological changes in Manzala lagoon, Nile Delta, Egypt. Environ Geol, 36(3), 235–258.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nasr RAM (2013) Geochemical studies of bottom sediments at Southeastern Lake Manzala, Tennis Island, Port Said, Egypt. MSc Thesis. Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ramadan AA (2003) Heavy metal pollution and biomonitoring plants in Lake Manzala, Egypt. Pak J Biol Sci 6(13):1108–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Salah Eldein AM, Gamal Eldein MA, Mohamadeen LI (2012) Resident wild birds as bio-indicator for some heavy metals pollution in Lake Manzala. Suez Canal Vet Med J 17(1):109–121Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Barakat AO, Mostafa A, Wade TL, Sweet ST, El Sayed NB (2012) Assessment of persistent organochlorine pollutants in sediments from Lake Manzala, Egypt. Mar Pollut Bull 64(8):1713–1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kamel E, Moussa S, Abonorag MA, Konuk M (2015) Occurrence and possible fate of organochlorine pesticide residues at Manzala Lake in Egypt as a model study. Environ Monit Assess 187(1):4161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    El-Kady AA, Wade TL, Sweet ST, Sericano JL (2017) Distribution and residue profile of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment and fish of Lake Manzala, Egypt. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(11):10301–10312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Barakat AO, Mostafa A, El-Sayed NB, Wade TL, Sweet ST (2013) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Lake Manzala, Egypt. Soil Sediment Contam Int J 22(3):315–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zahran MAEK, El-Amier YA, Elnaggar AA, Mohamed HAEA, El-Alfy MAEH (2015) Assessment and distribution of heavy metals pollutants in Manzala Lake, Egypt. J Geosci Environ Protect 3(06):107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Neev DN, Baker N, Emery KO (1987) Mediterranean coasts of Israel and Sinai. Taylor & Francis, New York, p 129Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hamdan G (1980) The personality of Egypt, vol. I, A’alam El-Kotob, Cairo, p 841Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Klein M (1986) Morphological changes of the artificial inlets of the Bardawil lagoon. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 22:487–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Khalil MT, Shaltout KH (2006) Lake Bardawil and Zaranik Protected Area, Publ. of National Biodiversity Unit No. 15, MedWetCoast Project, Dept. of Nature Protection, Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs, Cairo, p 599Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Embabi NS, Moawad MB (2014) A semi-automated approach for mapping geomorphology of el Bardawil lake, northern Sinai, Egypt, using integrated remote sensing and GIS techniques. Egypt J Rem Sens Space Sci 17(1):41–60Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Samy YM, El-Bady MSM (2014) Comparative study of the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Burullus and Bardawil lake sediments, Mediterranean Sea Coast, Egypt. Life Sci J 11(9):686–700Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Taher AG (2001) Geochemistry of recent marine sediments in the Bardawil lagoon, northern Sinai, Egypt. Hydrobiologia 457(1):5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Okbah MA, Younis AM, El Zokm GM (2015) Heavy metals fractionation and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) in the Bardawil Lagoon Sediments, Northern Sinai, Egypt. Dev Anal Chem 2:1–9Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lotfy IM (2003) Organic matter, carbonate and trace metals distribution in recent sediments of Bardawil Lagoon, Egypt. Acad Soc Environ Develop (Environmental Studies) 4(2):179–197Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Abdo MH (2005) Assessment of some heavy metals, major cations and organic matter in the recent sediments of Bardawil Lagoon, Egypt. Egypt J Aquat Res 31:1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. I. Mohamedein
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. A. El-Sawy
    • 2
  • M. A. Bek
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratory of Marine Pollution, Marine Environment DepartmentNational Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF)SuezEgypt
  2. 2.Laboratory of Marine Chemistry, Marine Environment DepartmentNational Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF)SuezEgypt
  3. 3.School for Marine Science and TechnologyUniversity of Massachusetts-DartmouthNew BedfordUSA
  4. 4.Physics and Engineering Mathematics Department, Faculty of EngineeringTanta UniversityTantaEgypt

Personalised recommendations