Pesticide Alternatives Use in Egypt: The Concept and Potential

  • Atef Mohamed Khedr NassarEmail author
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 77)


Pest management programs include physical, mechanical, cultural, and legislative strategies, resistant varieties, activation of host plant defense mechanisms, biological control agents, and synthetic pesticides. Yet, the application of synthetic pesticides is the main control method, which heavily contaminates the environment and affects the quality of produced crops and the safety of humans. Therefore, scientists around the world and in Egypt are investigating numerous alternative approaches including plant natural extracts, specific secondary metabolites, intercropping crops (the allelopathic and/or defense inductive effects), and nanoformulations of secondary metabolites and/or pesticides. These alternatives showed promising potential as anti-pathogenic agents. The current chapter will accentuate the contribution of the Egyptian scientists in the area of using natural plant chemicals as pesticide alternatives or additives. Also, presented herein is a summary of the application of nanomaterials, nanoemulsions, nanoencapsulation, and nano-pesticides in the IPM systems. However, there are thousands of research articles and patents that describe the immense potential of nanotechnology and natural materials as alternatives to the synthetic pesticides. There is very limited number of registered commercial products either in Egypt or worldwide.


IPM Nano-pesticides Phytopathogens Plant secondary metabolites 


  1. 1.
    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2017) Pesticides use in Egypt. Accessed 1 Jul 2017
  2. 2.
    Khater HF (2012) Ecosmart biorational insecticides: alternative insect control strategies. Insecticides – advances in integrated pest management. InTech, London. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Trumble JT (2008) Natural products used for insect control. Encyclopedia of entomology. Springer, Amsterdam, pp 2571–2572. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Casida J, Quistad G (1995) Pyrethrum flowers: production, chemistry, toxicology and uses. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Copping LG (1998) The biopesticide manual. BCPC, FarnhamGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ray DE (1991) Pesticides derived from plants and other organisms. In: Hayes W, Laws E (eds) Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Academic, New York, pp 585–636Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coats JR (1994) Risks from natural versus synthetic insecticides. Annu Rev Entomol 39:489–515. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cope WG, Leidy RB, Hodgson W (2004) Classes of toxicants: use classes. In: Hodgson E (ed) A textbook of modern toxicology, 3rd edn. Wiley, Hoboken, p 68Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Parmar BS, Walia S (2001) Prospects and problems of phytochemical biopesticides. Phytochemical biopesticides. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–70Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Farone W, Palmer T, Puterka J (2002) Polyol ester insecticides and method of synthesisGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Johnson HA, Oberlies NH, Alali FQ, McLaughlin JL (2000) Thwarting resistance: annonaceous acetogenins as new pesticidal and antitumor agents. In: Cutler SJ, Cutler HG (eds) Biologically active natural products: pharmaceuticals. CRC Press, Washington, pp 173–183Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moeschler H, Pfluger W, Wendisch D (1987) Pure annonin and a process for the preparation thereof. US Patent 4689232Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mikolajczak K, McLaughlin J (1988) Control of pests with annonaceous acetogenins. US Patent 4721727Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    MALR (2017) Certified control recommendations of agricultural pests in Egypt. Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, CairoGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ameen HH, Hasabo SA (1995) Effect of intercropping Asparagus scandens with sour organe seedling in comparison with nematicidal and root exudate treatments on Tylenchulus semipenetrans larvae. Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskd Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutzr 68:129–130. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hegab MFA, Ayoub FH, Badran AB, Ammar MI (2016) New approaches to control cucumber infestation with insects and mites with emphasis on the production and horticulture characteristics under greenhouse conditions. Ann Agric Sci 54:629–638Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dimetry NZ, El-Genaihi S, Reda AS, Amer SAA (1992) Biological effects of some isolated Abrus precatorius L. alkaloids towards Tetranychus urticae Koch. Anz Schadlingskde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz 65:99–101Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Al-Rajhy DAH, Alahmed AM, Hussein HI, Kheir SM (2003) Acaricidal effects of cardiac glycosides, azadirachtin and neem oil against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae). Pest Manag Sci 59:1250–1254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Amer SAA, Momen FM (2005) Effect of French lavender essential oil on some predacious mites of the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Acta Phytopathol Entomol Hungarica 40:409–415Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dawidar AM, Abdel-Mogib M, El-Naggar ME, Mostafa ME (2009) Acaricidal activity and chemical constituents of Hyoscyamus muticus against Teteranychus urticae Koch. Rev Latinoamer Quím 37:45–55Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    El-Zemity SR, Rezk HA, Zaitoon AA (2009) Acaricidal potential of some essential oils and their monoterpenoids against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch.) Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 42:334–339. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    El-Sharabasy HM (2010) Acaricidal activities of Artemisia judaica L. extracts against Tetranychus urticae Koch and its predator Phytoseiulus. J Biopest 3:514–519Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Afify AEMMR, Ali FS, Turky AF (2012) Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and eucalyptus. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2:24–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dawidar A-AM, Abdel-Mogib M, El-Naggar ME, Mostafa ME (2014) Isolation and characterization of Polygonum equisetiforme flavonoids and their acaricidal activity against Tetranychus urticae Kokh. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 5:140–148Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dawidar AM, Abdel-Mogib M, El-naggar MES, El-Hoseiny Mostaga M (2015) Acaricidal activity of Ethulia conyzoides extracts and constituents against Tetranychus urticae Koch. Int J Sci Eng Appl 4:1–5. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nour-El-deen MA, Abo-zid AE, Azouz HA (2014) Use of some environmentally safe materials as alternatives to the chemical pesticides in controlling Polyphagotarsonimus lauts (banks) mite & Myzus persica (Koch) aphid which attack potatoes crop. Middle East J Agric Res 3:32–41Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zaky WH, Nada MGA, Hilal AA (2006) Evaluation of the efficiency of some environmentally safe means for controlling rust disease of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), as important medicinal plant in Egypt. Egypt J Phytopathol 34:103–119Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    El-Mougy NS, El-Gamal NG, Abdalla MA (2008) The use of fungicide alternatives for controlling postharvest decay of strawberry and orange fruits. J Plant Prot Res 48:385–396. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abo-Elyousr KAM, Hashem M, Ali EH (2009) Integrated control of cotton root rot disease by mixing fungal biocontrol agents and resistance inducers. Crop Prot 28:295–301. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Abdel-Kader MM, El-Mougy NS, Aly MDE, Embaby EI (2011) Occurrence of sclerotinia foliage blight disease of cucumber and pepper plants under protected cultivation system in Egypt II. Bio-control measures against Sclerotinia Spp. in vitro. Adv Life Sci 1:59–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    El-mougy NS, Abdel-Kader MM, Lashin SM, Megahed AA (2013) Fungicides alternatives as plant resistance inducers against foliar diseases incidence of some vegetables grown under plastic houses conditions. Int J Eng Innov Technol 3:71–81Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    El-Mohamedy RSR, Abdel-Kader MM, Abd-El-Kareem F, El-Mougy NS (2013) Inhibitory effect of antagonistic bio-agents and chitosan on the growth of tomato root rot pathogens in vitro. J Agric Technol 9:1521–1533Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    El-Mougy NS, Abdel-Kader MM, Lashin SM (2014) Fungicide alternatives for controlling cantaloupe root rot incidence under plastic houses conditions. Int J Eng Innov Technol 3:319–323Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nassar AMK, Adss IAA (2016) 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, abscisic acid, and hydrogen peroxide induced resistance-related components against potato early blight (Alternaria solani, Sorauer). Ann Agric Sci 61:15–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Abbassy MA, Abdelgaleil SAM, Belal ASH, Rasoul MAAA (2007) Insecticidal, antifeedant and antifungal activities of two glucosides isolated from the seeds of Simmondsia chinensis. Ind Crop Prod 26:345–350. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Algamal MA, Marei GIK, Saad MMG, Abdelgaleil SAM (2013) Antimicrobial and phytotoxic properties of artemisinin and related derivatives. World Appl Sci J 28:1382–1388. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Badawy MEI, Abdelgaleil SAM (2014) Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from Egyptian plants against plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Ind Crop Prod 52:776–782. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Badawy MEI, Abdelgaleil SAM, Suganuma T, Fuji M (2014) Antibacterial and biochemical activity of pseudoguaianolide sesquiterpenes isolated from Ambrosia maritima against plant pathogenic bacteria. Plant Prot Sci 50:64–69Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    El-Mougy NS (2009) Effect of some essential oils for limiting early blight (Alternaria solani) development in potato field. J Plant Prot Res 49:57–62. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hashem M, Moharam AMM, Zaied AAA, Saleh FEMEM (2010) Efficacy of essential oils in the control of cumin root rot disease caused by Fusarium spp. Crop Prot 29:1111–1117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abdel-Kader M, El-Mougy N, Lashin S (2011) Essential oils and Trichoderma harzianum as an integrated control measure against faba bean root rot pathogens. J Plant Prot Res 51:306–313. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Abdel-Kader MM, Abdel-Kareem F, El-Mougy NS, El-Gamal NG (2013) Field approaches of bacterial biocides and essential oils as integrated control measures against peanut crown rot disease. Plant Pathol Quar 3:161–170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ammar MI, Nenaah GE, Mohamed AHH (2013) Antifungal activity of prenylated flavonoids isolated from Tephrosia apollinea L. against four phytopathogenic fungi. Crop Prot 49:21–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Abdel-Reheem MAT, Oraby MM (2015) Anti-microbial, cytotoxicity, and necrotic ripostes of Pimpinella anisum essential oil. Ann Agric Sci 60:335–340. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Salem MZM, Zidan YE, Mansour MMA, El Hadidi NMN, Abo Elgat WAA (2016) Antifungal activities of two essential oils used in the treatment of three commercial woods deteriorated by five common mold fungi. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 106:88–96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Abdel-Monaim MF, Abo-Elyousr KAM, Morsy KM (2011) Effectiveness of plant extracts on suppression of damping-off and wilt diseases of lupine (Lupinus termis Forsik). Crop Prot 30:185–191. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bussaman P, Namsena P, Rattanasena P, Chandrapatya A (2012) Effect of crude leaf extracts on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. Psyche 2012:6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nassar AMK, Abbassy MA, Masoud SAM, Ghoneim MM (2013) Natural extracts of mushroom and garlic as bactericide alternatives against potato soft-rot bacteria, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. J Agric Environ Sci 12:1–19Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Abbassy MA, Marei GIK, Rabia SMH (2014) Antimicrobial activity of some plant and algal extracts. Int J Plant Soil Sci 3:1366–1373. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Abbassy MA, Marzouk MA, Rabea EI, Abd-elnabi AD (2014) Insecticidal and fungicidal activity of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) extracts and their fractions. Anu Res Rev Biol 4:2252–2262. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Baka ZAM (2014) Plant extract control of the fungi associated with different Egyptian wheat cultivars grains. J Plant Prot Res 54:231–237. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Abbassy MA, Masoud SA, Nassar AMK (2016) In vitro antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of Abrus precatorius Linn. Egypt J Plant Prot Res 4:1–14Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    ElShafei GMS, El-Said MM, Attia HAE, Mohammed TGM (2010) Environmentally friendly pesticides: essential oil-based w/o/w multiple emulsions for anti-fungal formulations. Ind Crop Prod 31:99–106. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Abouziena HF, Haggag WM (2016) Weed control in clean agriculture: a review. Planta Daninha, Vicosa-MG 34:377–392. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hussein HF, El-Hariri DM, Hassanein MS (2001) Response of some flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivars and associated weeds to weed control treatments. Egypt J Agron 24:23–42Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    El-Rokiek K, Saad El-Din S, Sharara F (2010) Allelopathic behaviour of Cyperus rotundus L. on both Chorchorus olitorius (broad leaved weed) and Echinochloa crus-galli (grassy weed) associated with soybean. J Plant Prot Res 50:274–279. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Saad MMG, Abdelgaleil SAM, Suganuma T (2012) Herbicidal potential of pseudoguaninolide sesquiterpenes on wild oat, Avena fatua L. Biochem Syst Ecol 44:333–337. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Saad MMG, Algamal MA, Abdelgaleil SAM (2013) Effect of artemisinin and its derivatives on germination and seedling growth of three weed species. Alex J Agric Res 58:287–294Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Abbassy MA, El-Shazli A, El-Gayar F (1977) A new antifeedant to Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepid. Noctuidae) from Acokanthera spectabilis hook. (Apocynaceae). Z ang Ent 83:317–322Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Abdel I, Ismail K (1999) Impact of glucosinolate in relation to leafminer, Liriomyza brassicae Riley (Diptera: Agromyzidae) infestation in crucifers. Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskunde J Pest Sci 72:104–106Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Abdelgaleil SAM, El-Aswad AF, Nakatani M (2002) Molluscicidal and anti-feedant activities of diterpenes from Euphorbia paralias L. Pest Manag Sci 58:479–482. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Abdelgaleil SAM, El-Aswad AF (2005) Antifeedant and growth inhibitory effects of tetranortriterpenoids isolated from three meliaceous species on the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) J Appl Sci Res 1:234–241. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    El-Shazly AM, Dora G, Wink M (2005) Alkaloids of Haloxylon salicornicum (Moq.) Bunge ex Boiss. (Chenopodiaceae). Pharmazie 60:949–952. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Abdelgaleil SAM, Abbassy MA, Belal ASH, Abdel Rasoul MAA (2008) Bioactivity of two major constituents isolated from the essential oil of Artemisia judaica L. Bioresour Technol 99:5947–5950. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Abbassy MA, Abdelgaleil SAM, Rabie RYA (2009) Insecticidal and synergistic effects of Majorana hortensis essential oil and some of its major constituents. Entomol Exp Appl 131:225–232. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Abdelgaleil SAM, Abbassy MA, Rabie RYA (2010) Insecticidal properties of plant extracts and monoterpenes towards the fourth instars of Spodoptera littoralis Boisd (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and adults of Aphis fabae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae). J Pest Control Environ Sci 18:119–133Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Abd-Elhady H (2012) Insecticidal activity and chemical composition of essential oil from Artemisia judaica L. against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J Plant Prot Res 52:347–352. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mohamed MIE, Abdelgaleil SAM (2008) Chemical composition and insecticidal potential of essential oils from Egyptian plants against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Appl Entomol Zool 43:599–607. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Abdel-Sattar E, Zaitoun AA, Farag MA, Gayed SH, Harraz FMH (2010) Chemical composition, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of Schinus molle L. leaf and fruit essential oils against Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum. Nat Prod Res 24:226–235. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Derbalah A, Ahmed S (2011) Oil and powder of spearmint as an alternative to Sitophilus oryzae chemical control of wheat grains. J Plant Prot Res 51:145–150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Nenaah GE (2014) Bioactivity of powders and essential oils of three Asteraceae plants as post-harvest grain protectants against three major coleopteran pests. J Asia Pac Entomol 17:701–709. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nenaah GE (2014) Chemical composition, toxicity and growth inhibitory activities of essential oils of three Achillea species and their nano-emulsions against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Ind Crop Prod 53:252–260. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dimetry NZ, Gomaa AA, Salem AA, Abd-El-Moniem ASH (1996) Bioactivity of some formulations of neem seed extracts against the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskd Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 69:140–141Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Adel MM, El-Hawary FM, Abdel-Aziz NF, Sammour EA (2010) Some physiological, biochemical and histopathological effects of Artemisia monosperma against the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 43:1098–1110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ghazawy NA, Awad HH, Abdel Rahman KM (2010) Effects of azadirachtin on embryological development of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria Forskål (Orthoptera: Acrididae). J Orthoptera Res 19:327–332. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ezzeldin HA, Sallam AAA, Helal TY, Fouad HA (2009) Effect of some materials on Sesamia cretica infesting some maize and sorghum varieties. Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 42:277–290. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Amro MAA, Gameel MM, Protection P, Abdel-Galila FA, Amro MAA, Abdel-Moniem ASH, Gameel SMM (2011) Comparative study on the potential of Malathion 57% and selected pesticide safe alternatives in reducing fruit flies infestation in the New Valley Orchards. Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 44:231–241. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mansour SA, Abdel-Hamid NA (2015) Residual toxicity of bait formulations containing plant essential oils and commercial insecticides against the desert locust, Schestocerca gregaria (Forskal). Ind Crop Prod 76:900–909. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hegab MFAH, Ayoub FH, Badran BA, Ammar MI (2016) New approaches to control cucumber pest infestation with emphasis on productivity and crop characteristics under greenhouse conditions. Egypt J Agric Res 94:673–688Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zahran HEDM, Abou-Taleb HK, Abdelgaleil SAAM (2017) Adulticidal, larvicidal and biochemical properties of essential oils against Culex pipiens L. J Asia Pac Entomol 20:133–139. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dimetry NZ, Schmidt GH (1992) Efficacy of neem-azal-S and margosan-O against the bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scop. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz 109:612–623Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Abd El-Aziz SE, Sharaby AM (1997) Some biological effects of white mustard oil, Brassica alba against the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Anzeiger für Schädlingskd Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 70:62–64. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ismail IA, Abdel-Rahaman RS, Abdel-Raheem MA (2015) Influence of some essential oils, chemical compounds and their mixtures against Ceroplastes rusci L. and Asterolcanium pustolans Cock on fig trees. Int J ChemTech Res 8:187–195Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Salem HA, Abdel-Aziz NF, Sammour EA, El-Bakry AM (2016) Semi-field evaluation of some natural clean insecticides from essential oils on armored and soft scale insects (Homoptera: Diaspididae and Coccidae) infesting mango plants. Int J ChemTech Res 9:87–97Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Salem FM, Osman GY (1988) Effectiveness of tagetes natural exudates on Meloidogyne javanica (Chitwood) nematode. Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskd Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 61:17–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Korayem VAM, Osman HA (1992) Nematicidal potential of the henna plant Lawsonia inermis against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne ineognita. Anzeiger fuer Schäedlingskd Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 65:14–16Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    El-Hamawi MH, Youssef MMA, Zawam HS (2004) Management of Meloidogyne incognita, the root-knot nematode, on soybean as affected by marigold and sea ambrosia (damsisa) plants. J Pest Sci 77:95–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Abd-Elgawad MM, Omer EA (1995) Effect of essential oils of some medicinal plants on phytonematodes. Anzeiger für Schädlingskd Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 68:82–84. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hasabo SA, Noweer EMA (2005) Management of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on eggplant with some plant extracts. Egypt J Phytopathol 33:65–72Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    El-Nagdi W, El Fattah A (2011) Controlling root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infecting sugar beet using some plant residues, a biofertilizer, compost and biocides. J Plant Prot Res 51:107–113. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Abd-Alla HI, Ibrahim HS, Hamouda SES, El-Kady AMA (2013) Formulation and nematicidal efficiency of some alternative pesticides. Am J Res Commun 1:273–290Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Abdel-Kader MM, Hammam MMA, El-Mougy NS, Abd-Elgawad MMM (2015) Pesticide alternatives for controlling root rot and root knot of cucumber under plastic house conditions. Int J Eng Innov Technol 4:25–31Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Radwan MA, Abu-Elamayem MM, Farrag SAA, Ahmed NS (2017) Comparative suppressive effect of some organic acids against Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato. Pak J Nematol 35:197–208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Dasgupta N, Ranjan S, Chakraborty AR, Ramalingam C, Shanker R, Kumar A (2016) Nanoagriculture and water quality management. Nanoscience in food and agriculture. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    El Wakeil N, Alkahtani S, Gaafar N (2017) Is nanotechnology a promising field for insect pest control in IPM programs? New pesticides and soil sensors. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 273–309Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jampilek J, Kráľová K (2017) Nanopesticides: preparation, targeting, and controlled release. In: New pesticides and soil sensors, 1st edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 81–127Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kah M, Beulke S, Tiede K, Hofmann T (2013) Nanopesticides: state of knowledge, environmental fate, and exposure modeling. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 43:1823–1867. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kah M, Hofmann T (2014) Nanopesticide research: current trends and future priorities. Environ Int 63:224–235. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Servin A, Elmer W, Mukherjee A, De la Torre-Roche R, Hamdi H, White JC, Bindraban P, Dimkpa C (2015) A review of the use of engineered nanomaterials to suppress plant disease and enhance crop yield. J Nanopart Res 17:1–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    FPO (Free Online Patents) (2017) Online search on “nanopesticides”. Accessed 1 Aug 2017
  101. 101.
    Konur O (2017) Scientometric overview in nanopesticides. New pesticides and soil sensors. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 719–744Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Boehm AL, Martinon I, Zerrouk R et al (2003) Nanoprecipitation technique for the encapsulation of agrochemical active ingredients. J Microencapsul 20:433–444Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Cameron NMS, Mitchell ME (2007) Nanoscale: issues and perspectives for the nano century. Potential environmental hazards nanotechnology applications existing low. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hayles J, Johnson L, Worthley C, Losic D (2017) Nanopesticides: a review of current research and perspectives. New pesticides and soil sensors. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 193–225Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Roy S, Das TK (2016) Effect of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles on the growth and some biochemical parameters of Aspergillus foetidus. J Environ Chem Eng 4(2):1574–1583. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sasson Y, Levy-Ruso G, Toledano O, Ishaaya I (2007) Nanosuspensions: emerging novel agrochemical formulations. Insecticides design using advanced technologies. Springer, Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Li ZZ, Chen JF, Liu F, Liu AQ, Wang Q, Sun HY, Wen LX (2007) Study of UV-shielding properties of novel porous hollow silica nanoparticle carriers for avermectin. Pest Manag Sci 63:241–246Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Prado AGS, Moura AO, Nunes AR (2011) Nanosized silica modified with carboxylic acid as support for controlled release of herbicides. J Agric Food Chem 59:8847–8852Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Adak T, Kumar J, Shakil NA, Walia S (2012) Development of controlled release formulations of imidacloprid employing novel nano-ranged amphiphilic polymers. J Environ Sci Health B 47:217–225. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Namasivayam SKR, Aruna A (2014) Evaluation of silver nanoparticles-chitosan encapsulated synthetic herbicide paraquate (AgNp-CS-PQ) preparation for the controlled release and improved herbicidal activity against Eichhornia crassipes. Res J Biotechnol 9:19–27Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bhan S, Mohan L, Srivastava CN (2014) Relative larvicidal potentiality of nano-encapsulated Temephos and Imidacloprid against Culex quinquefasciatus. J Asia Pac Entomol 17:787–791. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Abigail MEA, Samuel SM, Chidambaram R (2015) Application of rice husk nanosorbents containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide to control weeds and reduce leaching from soil. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 63:1–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Zhang WB, He S, Liu Y, Geng QQ, Ding GL, Guo MC, Deng YF, Zhu JL, Li JQ, Cao YS (2014) Preparation and characterization of novel functionalized prochloraz microcapsules using silica-alginate-elements as controlled release carrier materials. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:11783–11790Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wang L, Li X, Zhang G, Dong J, Eastoe J (2007) Oil-in-water nanoemulsions for pesticide formulations. J Colloid Interface Sci 314:230–235. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Zeng H, Li XF, Zhang GY, Dong JF (2008) Preparation and characterization of beta cypermethrin nanosuspensions by diluting O/W microemulsions. J Dispers Sci Technol 29:358–361Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Bang SH, Hwang IC, Yu YM, Kwon HR, Kim DH, Park HJ (2011) Influence of chitosan coating on the liposomal surface on physicochemical properties and the release profile of nanocarrier systems. J Microencapsul 28:595–604Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kang MA, Seo MJ, Hwang IC, Jang C, Park HJ, Yu YM, Youn YN (2012) Insecticidal activity and feeding behavior of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, after treatment with nano types of pyrifluquinazon. J Asia Pac Entomol 15:533–541Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lim CJ, Basri M, Omar D, Rahman MBA, Salleh AB, Rahman RNZRA (2013) Green nanoemulsion-laden glyphosate isopropylamine formulation in suppressing creeping foxglove (A. gangetica), slender button weed (D. ocimifolia) and buffalo grass (P. conjugatum). Pest Manag Sci 69:104–111Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Chandra JH, Raj LFAA, Namasivayam SKR, Bharani RSA (2013) Improved pesticidal activity of fungal metabolite from Nomureae rileyi with chitosan nanoparticles. In: International conference advanced nanomaterials and emerging engineering technologies (ICANMEET), Chennai, 24–27 July, pp 387–390Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Xu L, Cao LD, Li FM, Wang XJ, Huang QL (2014) Utilization of chitosan-lactide copolymer nanoparticles as controlled release pesticide carrier for pyraclostrobin against Colletotrichum gossypii Southw. J Dispers Sci Technol 35:544–550Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wibowo D, Zhao C-X, Peters BC, Middelberg APJ (2014) Sustained release of fipronil insecticide in vitro and in vivo from biocompatible silica nanocapsules. J Agric Food Chem 62:12504–12511. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Xiang Y, Zhang G, Chi Y, Cai D, Wu Z (2017) Fabrication of a controllable nanopesticide system with magnetic collectability. Chem Eng J 328:320–330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Anjali CH, Sudheer Khan S, Margulis-Goshen K, Magdassi S, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2010) Formulation of water-dispersible nanopermethrin for larvicidal applications. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:1932–1936. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Song MR, Cui SM, Gao F, Liu RY, Fan CL, Lei TQ, Liu DC (2012) Dispersible silica nanoparticles as carrier for enhanced bioactivity of chlorfenapyr. J Pestic Sci 37:258–260Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Loha KM, Shakil NA, Kumar J, Singh M, Srivastava C (2012) Bio-efficacy evaluation of nanoformulations of β-cyfluthrin against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J Environ Sci Heal B 41:687–691Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Pankaj, Shakil NA, Kumar J, Singh MK, Singh K (2012) Bioefficacy evaluation of controlled release formulations based on amphiphilic nano-polymer of carbofuran against Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato. J Environ Sci Heal B 47:520–528Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Memarizadeh N, Ghadamyari M, Adeli M, Talebi K (2014) Preparation, characterization and efficiency of nanoencapsulated imidacloprid under laboratory conditions. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 107:77–83. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sarkar DJ, Kumar J, Shakil NA, Walia S (2012) Release kinetics of controlled release formulations of thiamethoxam employing nano-ranged amphiphilic PEG and diacid based block polymers in soil. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 47:1701–1712Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kaushik P, Shakil NA, Kumar J, Singh MK, Yadav SK (2013) Development of controlled release formulations of thiram employing amphiphilic polymers and their bioefficacy evaluation in seed quality enhancement studies. J Environ Sci Heal B 48:677–685Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Saini P, Gopal M, Kumar R, Srivastava C (2014) Development of pyridalyl nanocapsule suspension for efficient management of tomato fruit and shoot borer (Helicoverpa armigera). J Environ Sci Heal B 49:344–351Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kumar RSS, Shiny PJ, Anjali CH, Jerobin J, Goshen KM, Magdassi S, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2013) Distinctive effects of nano-sized permethrin in the environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:2593–2602Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Clemente Z, Grillo R, Jonsson M, Santos NZ, Feitosa LO, Lima R, Fraceto LF (2014) Ecotoxicological evaluation of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing triazine herbicides. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 14:4911–4917Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Pereira AE, Grillo R, Mello NF, Rosa AH, Fraceto LF (2014) Application of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles containing atrazine herbicide as an alternative technique to control weeds and reduce damage to the environment. J Hazard Mater 268:207–215Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    de Oliveira JL, Campos EVR, da Silva CMG, Pasquoto T, Lima R, Fraceto LF (2015) Solid lipid nanoparticles co-loaded with simazine and atrazine: preparation, characterization, and evaluation of herbicidal activity. J Agric Food Chem 63:422–432Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lamsal K, Kim SW, Jung JH, Kim YS, Kim KS, Lee YS (2011) Inhibition effects of silver nanoparticles against powdery mildews on cucumber and pumpkin. Mycobiology 39:26–32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Jo Y-K, Kim BH, Jung G (2009) Antifungal activity of silver ions and nanoparticles on phytopathogenic fungi. Plant Dis 93:1037–1043. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Lamsal K, Kim SW, Jung JH, Kim YS, Kim KS, Lee YS (2011) Application of silver nanoparticles for the control of Colletotrichum species in vitro and pepper anthracnose disease in field. Mycobiology 39:194–199. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Krishnaraj C, Ramachandran R, Mohan K, Kalaichelvan PT (2012) Optimization for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its effect on phytopathogenic fungi. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 93:95–99Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Gopinath V, Velusamy P (2013) Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus sp. GP-23 and evaluation of their antifungal activity towards Fusarium oxysporum. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 106:170–174. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lee K-J, Park S-H, Govarthanan M, Hwang P-H, Seo Y-S, Cho M, Lee W-H, Lee J-Y, Kamala-Kannan S, Oh B-T (2013) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using cow milk and their antifungal activity against phytopathogens. Mater Lett 105:128–131. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Mishra S, Singh BR, Singh A, Keswani C, Naqvi AH, Singh HB (2014) Biofabricated silver nanoparticles act as a strong fungicide against Bipolaris sorokiniana causing spot blotch disease in wheat. PLoS One 9(5):e97881Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Gajbhiye M, Kesharwani J, Ingle A, Gade A, Rai M (2009) Fungus-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their activity against pathogenic fungi in combination with fluconazole. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 5:382–386. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kim SW, Jung JH, Lamasal K, Kim YS, Min JS, Lee YS (2012) Antifungal effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against various plant pathogenic fungi. Mycobiology 40:53–58Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Longhi C, Santos JP, Morey AT, Marcato PD, Duran N, Pinge-Filho P, Nakazato G, Yamada-Ogatta SF, Yamauchi LM (2016) Combination of fluconazole with silver nanoparticles produced by Fusarium oxysporum improves antifungal effect against planktonic cells and biofilm of drug-resistant Candida albicans. Med Mycol 54:428–432. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Duncan TV (2011) Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors. J Colloid Interface Sci 363:1–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Fayaz AM, Balaji K, Girilal M, Yadav R, Kalaichelvan PT, Venketesan R (2010) Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their synergistic effect with antibiotics: a study against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 6:103–109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Yu S, Yin Y, Liu J (2013) Silver nanoparticles in the environment. Environ Sci Process Impacts 15:78–32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Kim K-J, Sung WS, Suh BK, Moon S-K, Choi J-S, Kim JG, Lee DG (2009) Antifungal activity and mode of action of silver nano-particles on Candida albicans. Biometals 22:235–242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Giannousi K, Avramidis I, Dendrinou-Samara C (2013) Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of copper based nanoparticles as agrochemicals against Phytophthora infestans. RSC Adv 3:21743–21752Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Kanhed P, Birla S, Gaikwas S, Gade A, Seabra AB, Rubilar O, Duran N, Rai M (2014) In vitro antifungal efficacy of copper nanoparticles against selected crop pathogenic fungi. Mater Lett 115:13–17Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Saharan V, Mehrotra A, Khatik R, Rawal P, Sharma SS, Pal A (2013) Synthesis of chitosan based nanoparticles and their in vitro evaluation against phytopathogenic fungi. Int J Biol Macromol 62:677–683. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Saharan V, Sharma G, Yadav M, Choudhary MK, Sharma SS, Pal A, Raliya R, Biswas P (2015) Synthesis and in vitro antifungal efficacy of Cu – chitosan nanoparticles against pathogenic fungi of tomato. Int J Biol Macromol 75:346–353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Ray D, Pramanik S, Prasad Mandal R, Chaudhuri S, De S (2015) Sugar-mediated “green” synthesis of copper nanoparticles with high antifungal activity. Mater Res Express 2:105002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Pařil P, Baar J, Čermák P, Rademacher P, Prucek R, Sivera M, Panáček A (2017) Antifungal effects of copper and silver nanoparticles against white and brown-rot fungi. J Mater Sci 52:2720–2729. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Park HJ, Kim SH, Kim HJ, Choi SH (2006) A new composition of nanosized silica-silver for control of various plant diseases. Plant Pathol J 22:295–302Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Barik TK, Sahu B, Swain V (2008) Nanosilica-from medicine to pest control. Parasitol Res 103:253–258Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Barik TK, Kamaraju R, Gowswami A (2012) Silica nanoparticle: a potential new insecticide for mosquito vector control. Parasitol Res 111:1075–1083. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Egger S, Lehmann RP, Height MJ, Loessner MJ, Schuppler M (2009) Antimicrobial properties of a novel silver-silica nanocomposite material. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:2973–2976. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Cui J, Liang Y, Yang D, Liu Y (2016) Facile fabrication of rice husk based silicon dioxide nanospheres loaded with silver nanoparticles as a rice antibacterial agent. Sci Rep 6:21423. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Wani AH, Shah MA (2012) A unique and profound effect of MgO and ZnO nanoparticles on some plant pathogenic fungi. J Appl Pharm Sci 2:40–44Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Ram P, Vivek K, Kumar SP, Prasad R, Kumar V, Prasad KS (2014) Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: present concerns and future aspects. Afr J Biotechnol 13:705–713. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Sharma N, Jandaik S, Kumar S, Chitkara M, Sandhu IS (2015) Synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activity of manganese- and iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. J Exp Nanosci 11:1–18. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hoseinzadeh A, Habibi-Yangjeh A, Davari M (2016) Antifungal activity of magnetically separable Fe3O4/ZnO/AgBr nanocomposites prepared by a facile microwave-assisted method. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int 26:334–340. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Strayer A, Ocsoy I, Tan W, Jones JB, Paret ML (2016) Low concentrations of a silver-based nanocomposite to manage bacterial spot of tomato in the greenhouse. Plant Dis 100:1460–1465. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    El-Argawy E, Rahhal MMH, El-Korany A, Elshabrawy EM, Eltahan RM (2017) Efficacy of some nanoparticles to control damping-off and root rot of sugar beet in El-Behiera Governorate. Asian J Plant Pathol 11:35–47. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Rubina MS, Vasil’kov AY, Naumkin AV, Shtykova EV, Abramchuk SS, Alghuthaymi MA, Abd-Elsalam KA (2017) Synthesis and characterization of chitosan–copper nanocomposites and their fungicidal activity against two sclerotia-forming plant pathogenic fungi. J Nanostruct Chem 7(3):249–258. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Buteler M, Sofie SW, Weaver DK, Driscoll D, Muretta J, Stadler T (2015) Development of nanoalumina dust as insecticide against Sitophilus oryzae and Rhyzopertha dominica. Int J Pest Manag 61:80–89. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Stadler T, Buteler M, Weaver DK (2010) Novel use of nanostructured alumina as an insecticide. Pest Manag Sci 66:577–579. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Shenashen M, Derbalah A, Hamza A, Mohamed A, ElSafty S (2017) Recent trend in controlling root rot disease of tomato caused by Fusarium solani using aluminasilica nanoparticles. Int J Adv Res Biol Sci 4:105–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    He L, Liu Y, Mustapha A, Lin M (2011) Antifungal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum. Microbiol Res 166:207–215. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Gunalan S, Sivaraj R, Rajendran V (2012) Green synthesized ZnO nanoparticles against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int 22:693–700. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Jayaseelan C, Rahuman AA, Kirthi AV, Marimuthu S, Santhoshkumar T, Bagavan A, Gaurav K, Karthik L, Rao KVB (2012) Novel microbial route to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles using Aeromonas hydrophila and their activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 90:78–84. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Hamza AM (2012) Efficacy and safety of non-traditional methods as alternatives for control of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in rice grains. Egypt J Biol Pest Control 22:103–108Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Dimkpa CO, McLean JE, Britt DW, Anderson AJ (2013) Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles and their interactive effect with a biocontrol bacterium on growth antagonism of the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Biometals 26:913–924. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Palanikumar L, Ramasamy SN, Balachandran C (2014) Size-dependent antimicrobial response of zinc oxide nanoparticles. IET Nanobiotechnol 8:111–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Zabrieski Z, Morrell E, Hortin J, Dimkpa C, McLean J, Britt D, Anderson A (2015) Pesticidal activity of metal oxide nanoparticles on plant pathogenic isolates of Pythium. Ecotoxicology 24:1305–1314. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Cui H, Zhang P, Gu W, Jiang J (2009) Application of anatasa TiO2 sol derived from peroxotitannic acid in crop diseases control and growth regulation. NSTI-Nanotech 2:286–289Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Paret M, Palmateer A, Knox G (2013) Evaluation of a light-activated nanoparticle formulation of TiO2/Zn for management of bacterial leaf spot on Rosa “Noare”. Hortscience 48:189–192Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Paret ML, Vallad GE, Averett DR, Jones JB, Olson SM (2013) Photocatalysis: effect of light-activated nanoscale formulations of TiO2 on Xanthomonas perforans and control of bacterial spot of tomato. Phytopathology 103:228–236Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Li J, Sang H, Guo H, Popko JT, He L, White JC, Dhankher OP, Jung G, Xing B (2017) Antifungal mechanisms of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles to Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. Nanotechnology 28:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Abdel-Hafez SII, Nafady NA, Abdel-Rahim IR, Shaltout AM, Daròs JA, Mohamed MA (2016) Assessment of protein silver nanoparticles toxicity against pathogenic Alternaria solani. 3 Biotech 6:1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Pietrzak K, Glińska S, Gapińska M, Ruman T, Nowak A, Aydin E, Gutarowska B, Aydın E, Gutarowska B (2016) Silver nanoparticles: mechanism of action on moulds. Metallomics 8:1294–1302. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Suriyaprabha R, Karunakaran G, Kavitha K, Yuvakkumar R, Rajendran V, Kannan N (2014) Application of silica nanoparticles in maize to enhance fungal resistance. IET Nanobiotechnol 8:133–137Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Benelli G, Pavela R, Maggi F, Petrelli R, Nicoletti M (2017) Commentary: making green pesticides greener? The potential of plant products for nanosynthesis and pest control. J Clust Sci 28:3–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Yang FL, Li XG, Zhu F, Lei CL (2009) Structural characterization of nanoparticles loaded with garlic essential oil and their insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J Agric Food Chem 57:10156–10162Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Forim MR, Costa ES, da Silva GFMF, Fernandes JB, Mondego JM, Boica AL (2013) Development of a new method to prepare nano-/microparticles loaded with extracts of Azadirachta indica, their characterization and use in controlling Plutella xylostella. J Agric Food Chem 61:9131–9139Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Jamal M, Moharramipour S, Zandi M, Negahban M (2013) Efficacy of nanoencapsulated formulation of essential oil from Carum copticum seeds on feeding behavior of Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae). J Entomol Soc Iran 33:23–31Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Khalili ST, Mohsenifar A, Beyki M, Zhaveh S, Rahmani-Cherati T, Abdollahi A, Bayat M, Tabatabaei M (2015) Encapsulation of thyme essential oils in chitosan-benzoic acid nanogel with enhanced antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus flavus. LWT Food Sci Technol 60:502–508. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    EL-Moslamy SH, Elkady MF, Rezk AH, Abdel-Fattah YR (2017) Applying Taguchi design and large-scale strategy for mycosynthesis of nano-silver from endophytic Trichoderma harzianum SYA.F4 and its application against phytopathogens. Sci Rep 7:45297. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Ishida K, Cipriano TF, Rocha GM, Weissmüller G, Gomes F, Miranda K, Rozental S (2013) Silver nanoparticle production by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum: nanoparticle characterisation and analysis of antifungal activity against pathogenic yeasts. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1–9. Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Busi S, Rajkumari J, Ranjan B, Karuganti S (2014) Green rapid biogenic synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IET Nanobiotechnol 8:267–275. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Prabakaran K, Ragavendran C, Natarajan D (2016) Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Beauveria bassiana and its larvicidal, antibacterial, and cytotoxic effect on human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. RSC Adv 6:44972–44986. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Qin X, Xiang X, Sun X, Ni H, Li L (2016) Preparation of nanoscale Bacillus thuringiensis chitinases using silica nanoparticles for nematicide delivery. Int J Biol Macromol 82:13–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Santhoshkumar T, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Bagavan A, Jayaseelan C, Zahir AA, Elango G, Kamaraj C (2011) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors. Parasitol Res 108:693–702. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Sundaravadivelan C, Nalini Padmanabhan M, Sivaprasath P, Kishmu L (2013) Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Pedilanthus tithymaloides leaf extract with anti-developmental activity against larval instars of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera; Culicidae). Parasitol Res 112:303–311. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Veerakumar K, Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M (2013) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sida acuta (Malvaceae) leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 112:4073–4085. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Usha Rani P, Madhusudhanamurthy J, Sreedhar B (2014) Dynamic adsorption of alpha-pinene and linalool on silica nanoparticles for enhanced antifeedant activity against agricultural pests. J Pestic Sci 87:191–200Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Medda S, Hajra A, Dey U, Bose P, Mondal NK (2015) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera leaf extract and antifungal activity against Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus sp. Appl Nanosci 5:875–880. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Nenaah GE, Ibrahim SIA, Al-Assiuty BA (2015) Chemical composition, insecticidal activity and persistence of three Asteraceae essential oils and their nanoemulsions against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) J Stored Prod Res 61:9–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Poopathi S, De Britto LJ, Praba VL, Mani C, Praveen M (2015) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Azadirachta indica a most effective method for mosquito control. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:2956–2963. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Almadiy AA, Nenaah GE, Al Assiuty BA, Moussa EA, Mira NM (2016) Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils and major fractions of four Achillea species and their nanoemulsions against foodborne bacteria. LWT Food Sci Technol 69:529–537. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Nassar AMK (2016) Effectiveness of silver nano-particles of extracts of Urtica urens (Urticaceae) against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Asian J Nematol 5:14–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Dharanivasan G, Sithanantham S, Kannan M, Chitra S, Kathiravan K, Janarthanan S (2017) Metal oxide nanoparticles assisted controlled release of synthetic insect attractant for effective and sustainable trapping of fruit flies. J Clust Sci 28:2167–2183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Pethakamsetty L, Kothapenta K, Nammi HR, Ruddaraju LK, Kollu P, Yoon SG, Pammi SVN (2016) Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros sylvatica. J Environ Sci 55:157–163. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Huang W, Bao Y, Duan H, Bi Y, Yu H (2017) Antifungal effect of green synthesised silver nanoparticles against Setosphaeria turcica. IET Nanobiotechnol 3:1–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Saratale RG, Benelli G, Kumar G, Kim DS, Saratale GD (2017) Bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticles using the leaf extract of an ancient herbal medicine, dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), evaluation of their antioxidant, anticancer potential, and antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens. Environ Sci Pollut Res. Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Chandler D, Bailey AS, Tatchell GM, Davidson G, Greaves J, Grant WP (2011) The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 366(1573):1987–1998. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Bailey A, Chandler D, Grant WP, Greaves J, Prince G, Tatchell M (2010) Biopesticides pest management and regulation. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Ruttkay-Nedecky B, Krystofova O, Nejdl L, Adam V (2017) Nanoparticles based on essential metals and their phytotoxicity. J Nanobiotechnol 15:33. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Protection Department, Faculty of AgricultureDamanhour UniversityDamanhourEgypt

Personalised recommendations