The Evolution of Drainage Water in Egypt
When floodwater comes only once a year to flush the soil and leach the accumulated salts thoroughly, there was no need for any drainage projects. The irrigation in Egypt was practiced only on the scale of scattered basins spreading from south to north and from the river floodplain eastward and westward.
When perennial irrigation was implemented, drainage became necessary. The salts that accumulated in the soil profile had to be leached either intermittently (with each irrigation gift) or seasonally (between summer and winter crops) for suitable salinity levels for plant growth. In the meantime, artificial drainage was required especially when the natural drainage characteristics of the soil were not sufficient in order to keep the soil profile in the root zone well aerated and unsaturated.
KeywordsDrainage Groundwater History Open drains Salinity Subsurface drains
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