Cloud-Based Non-conventional Land and Water Resources for Sustainable Development in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

  • El-Sayed Ewis OmranEmail author
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 75)


Egypt will face water scarcity, a problem that can be partially alleviated using the non-conventional water resources. With limited freshwater, tapping into non-conventional land and water resources has become a necessity for the Sinai. First, this chapter presents the state of the art of non-conventional water resource management techniques, which includes drainage water and wastewater reuse, desalination of brackish and saline water, fossil or Paleolakes water, and water harvesting. The combined effects of increasing demand for water for irrigation and the difficulties facing the disposal of waste sewage and agricultural drainage water suggest that technological innovation and adaptation are relevant for effective and environmentally sustainable reuse. Therefore, innovations are important to increase the efficiency of water use. Satellite remote sensing approaches, in conjunction with geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely used and have been recognized as an effective and powerful tool in monitoring and assessment of non-conventional water resources. Second, this chapter evaluates the status of non-conventional soil resources. The Sinai’s soils are classified into different classes including saline soil, gypsiferous soil, sandy soil, steep slope soil, skeletal soil, and shallow soil. If these soils are used for agricultural purpose, then it may cause some severe effects on the ecology and environment. Upon proper soil management and amendments with specific attention, they can be converted for cultivation soils. Finally, this chapter also proposes a smart-based land and water resources system based on the key technologies: Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, and smart sensors. Environmental sensors have been used in applications as per the need to build smart water resources management. Combining the Cloud, IoT, and sensors is vital, so that the sensing data can be stored or processed. The proposed system consists of the sensor layer, the transmission layer, the Cloud services layer, and the application layer. The system is a collection of platforms and infrastructures on which data is stored and processed, allowing farmers to retrieve and upload their data for a specific application, at any location with Internet access. Finally, advantages and the possible limitations of the proposed system are discussed.


Cloud computing Internet of Things Land resources Sinai Water resources Wireless sensor 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Soil and Water Department, Faculty of AgricultureSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt

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