Advertisement

Cloud-Based Non-conventional Land and Water Resources for Sustainable Development in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

  • El-Sayed Ewis Omran
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 75)

Abstract

Egypt will face water scarcity, a problem that can be partially alleviated using the non-conventional water resources. With limited freshwater, tapping into non-conventional land and water resources has become a necessity for the Sinai. First, this chapter presents the state of the art of non-conventional water resource management techniques, which includes drainage water and wastewater reuse, desalination of brackish and saline water, fossil or Paleolakes water, and water harvesting. The combined effects of increasing demand for water for irrigation and the difficulties facing the disposal of waste sewage and agricultural drainage water suggest that technological innovation and adaptation are relevant for effective and environmentally sustainable reuse. Therefore, innovations are important to increase the efficiency of water use. Satellite remote sensing approaches, in conjunction with geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely used and have been recognized as an effective and powerful tool in monitoring and assessment of non-conventional water resources. Second, this chapter evaluates the status of non-conventional soil resources. The Sinai’s soils are classified into different classes including saline soil, gypsiferous soil, sandy soil, steep slope soil, skeletal soil, and shallow soil. If these soils are used for agricultural purpose, then it may cause some severe effects on the ecology and environment. Upon proper soil management and amendments with specific attention, they can be converted for cultivation soils. Finally, this chapter also proposes a smart-based land and water resources system based on the key technologies: Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, and smart sensors. Environmental sensors have been used in applications as per the need to build smart water resources management. Combining the Cloud, IoT, and sensors is vital, so that the sensing data can be stored or processed. The proposed system consists of the sensor layer, the transmission layer, the Cloud services layer, and the application layer. The system is a collection of platforms and infrastructures on which data is stored and processed, allowing farmers to retrieve and upload their data for a specific application, at any location with Internet access. Finally, advantages and the possible limitations of the proposed system are discussed.

Keywords

Cloud computing Internet of Things Land resources Sinai Water resources Wireless sensor 

References

  1. 1.
    Chartzoulakisa K, Bertaki M (2015) Sustainable water management in agriculture under climate change. Agric Agric Sci Procedia 4:88–98. doi: 10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.03.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Resources Institute (1996) World resources, 1996–1997. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wolters W, Smit R, Nour El-Din M, Ahmed E, Froebrich J, Ritzema H (2016) Issues and challenges in spatial and temporal water allocation in the Nile Delta. Sustainability-Basel 8:383. doi: 10.3390/su8040383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    CAPMAS (2016) Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. http://www.capmasgoveg/
  5. 5.
    Abdel Kader AM, Abdel Rassoul SM (2010) Prospects of water conservation in Egypt (special reference to wastewater reuse). Fourteenth international water technology conference IWTC 14 2010, Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    CAPMS (2016) Bulletin of water resourcesGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    El-Agha DE, Molden DJ, Ghanem AM (2011) Performance assessment of irrigation water management in old lands of the Nile delta of Egypt. Irrig Drain Syst 25:215–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    El-Gafy IK (2014) System dynamic model for crop production, water footprint, and virtual water nexus. Water Resour Manag 28:4467–4490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    El Bedawy R (2014) Water resources management: alarming crisis for Egypt. J Manag Sustain 4(3):108–124. doi: 10.5539/jms.v4n3p108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    El Gamal F (2007) Use of non conven tional water resources in irrigated agriculture. In: Lamaddalena N, Bogliotti C, Todorovic M, Scardign OA (eds) Water saving in Mediterranean agriculture and future research needs, vol 2. CIHEAM, Bari, pp 33–43Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Omran ESE (2008) Is soil science dead and buried? Future image in the world of 10 billion people. CATRINA 3(2):59–68Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Papadavid G, Kountios G, Michailidis A (2013) Monitoring and determination of irrigation demand in Cyprus. Global NEST J 15(1):93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ambast SK, Ashok K, Keshari GAK (2006) Satellite remote sensing to support management of irrigation systems: concepts and approaches. Irrigat Drain Syst 5:15–39Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Al-Gamal S, Sadek M (2015) An assessment of water resources in Sinai Peninsula, using conventional and isotopic techniques, Egypt. Int J Hydrol Sci Technol 5(5–-3):241–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mohamed L (2015) Structural controls on the distribution of groundwater in Southern Sinai, Egypt: constraints from geophysical and remote sensing observations. Dissertations Paper 593. http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/dissertations/593
  16. 16.
    Ghoneim G (2016) The effect of alternative integrated management systems applied on farmers in the marginal environments in Sinai Peninsula. Middle East J Agric Res 05(02):152–160Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Said R (1962) The geology of Egypt. El-Sevier Publishing Company, Amesterdam, NYGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shata A (1956) Structural development of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Bull Inst Desert, Cairo 1Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Omara S (1972) An early Cambrian outcrop in southwestern Sinai, Egypt. NJP GeolPalaeontol 5:306–314Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kora M (1995) An introduction to the stratigraphy of Egypt. Lecture notes, Geology Dept Mansoura Univ., 116 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kerdany M, Cherif O (1990) Mesozoic. In: Said R (ed) The geology of Egypt , Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 407–438Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dames and Moore (1983) Sinai development study, final reportGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abu Al-Izz MS (1971) Landforms of Egypt. Dar-A1-Maaref, Cairo, Egypt, 281 pGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dames and Moore (1985) Sinai development study – phase I, final report, water supplies and costs. Volume V-report submitted to the Advisory Committee for Reconstruction, Minstry of Development, CairoGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jeong H, Kim H, Jang T (2016) Irrigation water quality standards for indirect wastewater reuse in agriculture: a contribution toward sustainable wastewater reuse in South Korea. Water 8(5):1–18. doi: 10.3390/w8040169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barnes J (2014) Mixing waters: the reuse of agricultural drainage water in Egypt Jessica Barnes. Geoforum 57:181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mostafa H, El Gamal F, Shalby A (2005) Reuse of low quality water in Egypt. In: Hamdy A, El Gamal F, Lamaddalena N, Bogliotti C, Guelloubi R (eds) Non-conventional water use: WASAMED project Bari: CIHEAM/EU DG Research, (Options Méditerranéennes: Série B Etudes et Recherches; n 53), pp 93–103Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gadallah H, Hanaa MA, Sahar SA, Rania S, Gadallah A (2014) Application of forward/reverse osmosis hybrid system for brackish water desalination using El-Salam Canal Water, Sinai, Egypt, Part (1): FO Performance. 4th International conference on environment science and engineering IPCBEE, vol 68 (2014) © (2014), IACSIT Press, Singapore, p 2. doi: 10.7763/IPCBEE
  29. 29.
    DRI (1993) Drainage Water. Desert Research Center, vol III. Drainage Water Reuse ProjectGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    EPA (1983) Design manual for municipal wastewater stabilization ponds office of water program operations, Washington DC 20460 EPA-625/1-83-015Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bolongaro-Crevenna A, Torres-Rodrıgueza V, Sorani V, Frame D, Ortiz M (2005) Geomorphometric analysis for characterizing landforms in Morelos State, Mexico. Geomorphology 67:407–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    ElSayed M (2013) Risk assesment of flash flood in Sinai. MSc thesis, College of Engineering Department, Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport (AASTMT)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Water Resources Research Institute (2010) Flash floods in Egypt protection and management, final report. National Water Research Center Ministry of Water Resources & Irrigation Egypt LIFE06 TCY/ET/000232Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (1999) South Sinai Groundwater resources study in the Arab Republic of Egypt. Main Report, p 220Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Masoud AA (2011) Runoff modeling of the wadi systems for estimating flash flood and groundwater recharge potential in Southern Sinai, Egypt. Arab J Geosci 4:785–801. doi: 10.1007/s12517-009-0090-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ghodeif K, Gorski J (2001) Protection of fresh ground water in El-Qaa Quaternary aquifer, Sinai, Egypt. New approaches characterizing flow. Seiler & Wonhnlich, Swets & Zeitliger Lisse, ISBN 902651 848 XGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Margat J, Foster S, Droubi A (2006) Concept and importance of non-renewable resources. In: Foster S, Loucks DP (eds) Non-renewable groundwater resources A guidebook on socially-sustainable management for water-policy makers Paris, UNESCO, pp 13–24Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Soos A (2011) Ancient fossil aquifers and Nasa. Environ Sci News. http://www.enn.com/sci-tech/article/43271
  39. 39.
    Tsur Y, Park H, Issar A (2007) Fossil groundwater resources as a basis for arid zone development? Int J Water Resour Dev 5(3):191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Maliva R, Missimer T (2012) Non-renewable groundwater resources. In: Arid lands water evaluation and management environmental science and engineering, pp 927–951. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-29104-3_36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Issar A, Bem A (1972) On the ancient water of the upper Nubian sandstone aquifer in Central Sinai and Southern Israel. J Hydrol 17(4):353–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    AbuBakr M, Ghoneim E, El-Baz F, Zeneldin M, Zeid S (2013) Use of radar data to unveil the paleolakes and the ancestral course of Wadi El-Arish, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Geomorphology 194:34–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    El Tahlawi M (2014) Sinai Peninsula: an overview of geology and thermal groundwater potentialities. In: Balderer W, Porowski A, Idris H, LaMoreaux JW (eds) Thermal and mineral waters: origin, properties and applications. Springer, Berlin, pp 25–38. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-28824-1_3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    El-Qady G, Salem A, Aboud E, Khalil A, Ushjima K (2005) Geothermal reconnaissance study for Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. In: Proceedings of World Geothermal Congress, Antalya, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Eriksson E, Auffarth K, Henze M, Ledin A (2002) Characteristics of grey wastewater. Urban Water 4(1):85–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ottoson J, Stenstrom TA (2003) Faecal contamination of greywater and associated microbial risks. Water Res 37(3):645–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rosas I, Baez A, Coutino M (1984) Bacteriological quality of crops irrigated with wastewater in the Xochimilco plots, Mexico City, Mexico. Appl Environ Microbiol 47:1074–1079Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jackson S, Rodda N, Salukazana L (2006) Microbiological assessment of food crops irrigated with domestic greywater. Water Air Soil Pollut 32(5):700–704Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Finley S, Barrington S, Lyew D (2009) Reuse of domestic greywater for the irrigation of food crops. Water Air Soil Pollut 199:235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Misra RK, Patel JH, Baxi VR (2010) Reuse potential of laundry greywater for irrigation based on growth, water and nutrient use of tomato. J Hydrol 386:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rodda N, Salukazana L, Jackson SAF, Smith MT (2011) Use of domestic greywater for small-scale irrigation of food crops: effects on plants and soil. Phys Chem Earth 36:1051–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Aertgeerts A, Angelakis A (2003) State of the art report: health risks in aquifer recharge using reclamied water. EUR/03/5041122, WHO Regional Office for Europe, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Omran ESE (2009) A proposed simplified method to improve land-use mapping accuracy. Agric Res J 9(3):123–132Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Omran ESE (1996) Mineralogical and chemical properties of indurated layers in soils of Suez Canal region. MSc thesis Soil and Water Department, Fac of Agric, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Omran ESE (2012) A neural network model for mapping and predicting unconventional soils at a regional level. Appl Remote Sens J 2(2):35–44Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Omran ESE (2016) A stochastic simulation model to early predict susceptible areas to water table level fluctuations in North Sinai, Egypt. Egypt Remote Sens J 19(2):235–257. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2016.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Omran ESE (2017) Early waterlogged identification system to assess spatiotemporal impact of the New Suez Canal, Egypt. J Coast ConservatGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lillesand TM, Kiefer RW (2000) Remote sensing and image interpretation. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gowri M, Shalini N, Suganthi K, Vinitha Sherlin S (2016) Developing a web service for water resources based on cloud computing in open source software. Int J Innovat Res Comput Commun Eng 4(3):63–70Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vaquero LM, Rodero-Merino L, Caceres J, Lindner M (2009) A break in the clouds: towards a cloud definition. ACM SIGCOMM Comput Commun Rev 39(1):50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mulligan G (2010) Internet of things: here now and coming soon. IEEE Internet Comput 14(1):35–36Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Khan R, Ali I, Suryani M, Ahmad M, Zakarya M (2013) Wireless sensor network based irrigation management system for container grown crops in Pakistan. World Appl Sci J 24(8):111–1118Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jara AJ, Zamora MA, Skarmeta AFG (2009) An ambient assisted living system for telemedicine with detection of symptoms. In: 3rd international work-conference on the interplay between natural and artificial computation, Lecture Notes, pp 75–84Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Delipetrev B, Jonoski A, Solomatine DP (2014) Development of a web application for water resources based on open source software. Comput Geosci 62:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Soto-Garcia M, Del-Amor-Saavedra P, Martin-Gorriz B, Martínez-Alvarez V (2013) The role of information and communication technologies in the modernisation of water user associations’ management. Comput Electron Agric 98:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Timmerman JG, Langaas S (2003) Environmental information in European Transboundary Water Management (eds) IWA Publishing, Alliance House, 12 Caxton Street, London, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Soil and Water Department, Faculty of AgricultureSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt

Personalised recommendations