Advertisement

Adaptive Management Zones of Egyptian Coastal Lakes

  • El-Sayed Ewis OmranEmail author
  • Abdelazim M. Negm
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 71)

Abstract

Lakes are one of the most important characteristics of Egypt’s coastal areas. However, deteriorating condition of these lakes due to industrialization, land reclamation, agricultural practices, overfishing, bird hunting, and coastal erosion is serious. Many challenges are faced by these lakes, some of which are the most polluted lakes in Egypt where they receive large quantities of agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastes through several drains and from factories around them. In addition, Egypt’s Mediterranean coast and the Nile Delta have been identified highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. Adaptive management is the best approach for addressing this type of complex problem. The main objective of this chapter is to classify Egypt’s lakes and depressions and to evaluate the land resources status of Egypt’s coastal lakes. Also, the challenges facing the sustainable development of these lakes were identified. Adaptive management approach would facilitate the investigation and classification of Egypt’s lakes and depressions.

Egypt has been distinguished into four adaptive management zones based on different factors such as the climatic conditions in combination with the agriculture, physiography, natural resources, and other issues affecting the socioeconomic activities. The country is endowed with four main zones as follows:
  1. 1.

    The North Coastal zone: including the coastal area stretching eastward from the northwestern coast to the northern coastal area of Sinai. The northern lake group includes Northern Delta Lakes and Lake Bardawil.

     
  2. 2.

    The Western Desert zone: encompassing oases and remote areas, including Wadi El- Natrun, Qattara Depression, Siwa Oasis, and Toshka Lakes.

     
  3. 3.

    The Nile Valley zone: encompassing the fertile alluvial land of Middle and Upper Egypt, the Nile Delta region, and the reclaimed desert areas on the fringes of the Nile Valley. This group includes Nasser Lake, Qarun Lake, and Wadi El-Rayyan Lakes.

     
  4. 4.

    Inland Sinai and the Eastern Desert zone: including Great Bitter Lake and El-Timsah Lake.

     

In the northern lakes, the levels of pollution in these lakes are Mariut > Manzala > Edku > Borollus > Bardawil. The most polluted lakes are Lake Mariut and Lake Manzala. Lake Mariut receives agricultural drainage and domestic and industrial wastewater from agricultural drains. However, Lake Manzala serves as a final repository for many of the municipal and agricultural wastewater of the eastern Delta, including the wastewater of most of Cairo. The main contributors to the lake are the Bahr El-Baqar drain, Hadous drain, and drainage water delivered by Mataria, lower Serw, and Faraskour pumping stations. Bahr El-Baqar drain carries sewage effluent from Cairo and the drainage water of more than 200,000 ha of agricultural lands.

The result of the case study on the Lake Manzala showed the land use and land cover change that has occurred during the period 1986–2016. The highest positive changes areas are showed in crop vegetation areas (+16.44%) and bare land areas (+15.43%), while the highest negative changes areas are displayed in natural vegetation areas (−23.91%) and fish pond areas (−10.77%).

Keywords

Adaptive management Climate change Coastal lakes Egypt Land resources Nile Delta 

References

  1. 1.
    Hereher M (2015) Coastal vulnerability assessment for Egypt’s Mediterranean coast. Geomat Nat Haz Risk 6(4):342–355.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19475705.2013.845115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anton-pardo M, Armengol X (2012) Effects of salinity and water temporality on zooplankton community in coastal Mediterranean ponds. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 114:93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Malm A (2013) Sea wall politics: uneven and combined protection of the Nile Delta coastline in the face of sea level rise. Crit Sociol 39(6):803–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    IPCC (The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007) Fourth assessment report: climate change. http://www.ipccch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reportss.html
  5. 5.
    Dasgupta S, Laplante B, Murray S, Wheeler D (2009) Sea-level rise and storm surges. Policy research working paper 4901. The World Bank, Development Research Group, Environment and Energy Team, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    El-Raey M (2010) Impacts and implications of climate change for the coastal zones of Egypt. In: Michel D, Pandya A (eds) Coastal zones and climate change. Henry L Stimson Center, Washington, pp 31–50Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cazenave A, Cabanes A, Dominh A, Mangiarotti S (2001) Recent sea level changes in the Mediterranean Sea revealed by Topex/Poseidon satellite altimetry. Geophys Res Lett 28:1607–1610.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Criado-Aldeanueva F, Del Río J, Vera J (2008) Steric and mass-induced Mediterranean sea level trends from 14 years of altimetry data. Glob Planet Chang 60:563–575.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.07.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tsimplis MN, Calafat MF, Marcos M, Jordà G, Gomis D, Fenoglio-Marc L, Struglia VM, Josey AS, Chambers PD (2013) The effect of the NAO on sea level and on mass changes in the Mediterranean Sea. J Geophys Res 118:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrc.20078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shaltout M, Tonbol K, Omstedt A (2015) Sea-level change and projected future flooding along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. Oceanologia 57:293–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abayazid H (2015) Assessment of temporal and spatial alteration in coastal lakes, Egypt. In: Proceedings of the eighteenth international water technology conference, IWTC18 Sharm ElSheikh, 12–14 Mar 2015Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maclaren (1982) Lake Manzala study. Egy./76/001-07. Draft report to Arab republic of Egypt, vol 12. Ministry of Development and New Communities and UNDP Scientists, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bebars IM, El-Gammal FI (1986) Waste water reuse project. Fish biology studies Final report, USAID, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moussa SM (2003) Impact of inorganic pollutants on aquatic environment and fish performance in Lake Borollus. PhD thesis, Institute of Environmental Studies & Research, Ain Shams University, Cairo, p 210Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Callicott JB, Crowder LB, Mumford K (1999) Current normative concepts in conservation. Conserv Biol 13:22–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Omran E-SE (2017) Will the traditional agriculture pass into oblivion? Adaptive remote sensing approach in support of precision agriculture. In: Rakshit A, Singh HB, Ghosh S (eds) Adaptive soil management: from theory to practices. Springer, Singapore, p 571Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Johnson BL (1999) The role of adaptive management as an operational approach for resource management agencies. Conserv Ecol 3(2):8. http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss2/art8/CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Said TO, Farag RS, Younis AM, Shreadah MA (2006) Organotin species in fish and bivalves samples collected from the Egyptian Mediterranean coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 77:451–458.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-006-1086-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Said TO, Moselhy KM, Rashad AM, Shreadah MA (2008) Organochlorine contaminants in water, sediment and fish of Lake Burullus, Egyptian Mediterranean Sea. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 81:136–146.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-008-9422-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abdel Ghani SA, Shobier AH, Said TO, Shreadah MA (2011) Organotin compounds in Egyptian Mediterranean sediments. Egypt J Aquat Res 36:221–229Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Milewski A, Sultan M, Yan E, Becker R, Abdeldayem A, Soliman F, Abdel Gelil K (2009) A remote sensing solution for estimating runoff and recharge in arid environments. J Hydrol 373:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    UNCCD (2005) In: Hegazzi A, Afifi MY, El Shorbagy MA, Elwan AA, El-Demerdash S (eds) UN convention to combat desertification – Egyptian national action program to combat desertification. Desert Research Center, CairoGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Harms JC, Wray JL (1990) Nile Delta. In: Said R (ed) Geology of Egypt. Taylor & Francis, Milton ParkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Toussoum O (1922) Memire sur les annciennes branches du Nil. Imprimeric d’Instit Francais Epoque ancienne TIVD’archeologie Orientale, CairoGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shahin AAW (1978) Some of the geological phenomena in the Nile Delta, vol 11. Arab Geographical Magazine, pp 9–26Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wilson I (1985) The exodus enigma. Wiedenfeld & Nicolson, London, p 46Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wahaab R, Badawy M (2004) Water quality assessment of the river Nile system: an overview. Biomed Environ Sci 17:87–100Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shaltout KH, Khalil MT (2005) Lake Burullus (Burullus protected area). Publication of national biodiversity unit no. 13Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shaltout KH, Galal TM (2006) Report on ecosystem of Lake ManzalaGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    El-Shazly M, Omar W, Edmardash Y, Sayed I, Elzayat I, El-Sebeay I, Abdel Rahman K, Soliman M (2016) Area reduction and trace element pollution in Nile Delta wetland ecosystems. Afr J Ecol.  https://doi.org/10.1111/aje.12264
  31. 31.
    Donia N, Hussein M (2004) Eutrophication assessment of Lake Manzala using GS techniques. In: Proceedings of the eighth international water technology conference, IWTC8 2004, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs (2014) Egypt’s fifth national report to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    El-Raey M, Fouda Y, Nasr SM (1997) GIS assessment of the vulnerability of the Rosetta area, Egypt to impacts of sea rise. Environ Monit Assess 47:59–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Massoud A, Saad H, Safty AM (2004) Environmental problems in two Egyptian shallow lakes subjected to different levels of pollution. In: Proceedings of the eighth international water technology conference, IWTC8 2004, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Baraka H (2012) Egypt’s lakes: a truly tragic environmental tale. Egyptian IndependentGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Elmaaz EIM (2005) Pedological and mineralogical on soils adjacent to some lacks at the north of Egypt. PhD thesis, Faculty of Agricultural, Minufiya University, Al MinufiyahGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kandil MF, Hanna F, Abd El-Aal SI (1980) Diagnostic features of Egyptian salt affected soils in the Nile Delta. Agric Reach Rev 58(4):115–133Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kandil MF, Hanna F, Abd El-Aal SI (1980) Sources and natures of the salinity and alkalinity in the salt affected soils of the northern part of Nile Delta, Egypt. Agric Reach Rev 58(4):99–9114Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Abo El-Ennan SM, Salem MZ, El-Badawi MM (1990) Genesis of the clay minerals of some soils in the Nile Delta, A.R.E. Egypt Soil Sci 30(3):445–456Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Abu-Agwa FE, Amira MS (1998) Characteristics and evaluation of soils adjacent to salty Lakes in Egypt. Minufiya Agric Res 23(4):l111–1128Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abu Al-Izz MS (1971) Land forms of Egypt. The American University in Cairo press, Dar Al Maaref, CairoGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Saad L (2003) Environmental concern down this earth day. Gallup News Service Poll Analyses. http://www.gallup.com/poll/releases
  43. 43.
    Hassan MA, Omran E-SE (2017) Modelling of land-use changes and their effects by climate change at the southern region of port said governorate, Egypt. Model Earth Syst Environ 3(1):13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tahoun SA (2007) The European Union’s short and medium-term priority environmental action programme (SMAP) “plan of action for an integrated coastal zone management in the area of port said (Egypt)”. Intersectoral Analysis in Coastal Zone Environmental Perspectives of the Port Said Area Contract n. MED/2005/112-172 ACTION 4Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Soil and Water Department, Faculty of AgricultureSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt
  2. 2.Water and Water Structures Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

Personalised recommendations