Advertisement

Use of Geoelectrical Resistivity to Delineate the Seawater Intrusion in the Northwestern Part of the Nile Delta, Egypt

  • Zenhom E. SalemEmail author
  • Osman M. Osman
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 73)

Abstract

Mapping of the boundaries between freshwater and saltwater was helpful in surface resistivity surveys because of the high electric conductivity of saltwater relative to freshwater. A total of 30 electrical soundings were measured to configurate the seawater intrusion. Accordingly, two zones of groundwater quality were delineated: the slightly freshwater zone in the southern part, with resistivity range of 15–90 Ω m, and the brackish water to saltwater zone, with a very low resistivity of <2 Ω m in the northwestern parts. In addition to tracing the freshwater-seawater contact zone, three geoelectric layers were detected. The surface layer composed of sand, clay, and silt. Its resistivity ranges from 5 to 512 Ω, and the thickness varies from 1 to 25 m. The aquifer layer is composed of sand with intercalations of clay with resistivity ranging from 15 to 90 Ω m and thickness from 25 to 120 m. The clay layer resistivity ranges from 2 to 15 Ω m and thickness from 2 to 69 m.

Keywords

Geoelectrical resistivity Northwestern Nile Delta Quaternary aquifer Seawater intrusion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Tanta University for the financial support offered during the course of this research work. The authors thank the editor Prof. Dr. Abdelazim Negm for his constructive remarks.

References

  1. 1.
    Satriani A, Loperte A, Imbrenda V, Lapenna V (2012) Geoelectrical surveys for characterization of the coastal saltwater intrusion in metapontum forest reserve (Southern Italy). Int J Geophys.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/238478 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Post VEA (2005) Fresh and saline groundwater interaction in coastal aquifers: is our technology ready for the problems ahead. Hydrogeol J 13:120–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Salem ZE, Al Temamy AM, Salah MK, Kassab M (2016) Origin and characteristics of brackish groundwater in Abu Madi coastal area, Northern Nile Delta, Egypt. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 178:21–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sherif MM, Kacimov A (2007) Seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of Wadi Ham, UAE: a new focus on groundwater seawater interactions. Proceedings of symposium HS 1001 at IUGG 2007, Perugia, vol 312. IAHS, Wallingford, pp 315–325Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wilson J, Townley LR, Sa Da Costa A (1979) Mathematical development and verification of a finite element aquifer flow model AQUIFEM-1, technology adaptation program, Report No. 79-2. M.I.T., MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Diab MS, Saleh MF (1982) The hydrogeochemistry of the pleistocene aquifer, Nile Delta area, Egypt. Environmental International, Alex, pp 75–85Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sherif MM, Singh VP, Amer AM (1988) A two-dimensional finite element model for dispersion (2D-FED) in coastal aquifer. J Hydrol 103:11–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sherif MM, Singh VP, Amer AM (1990) A note on saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers. J Water Resour Manag 4:113–123Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sherif MM, Sefelnasr A, Javadi A (2012) Incorporating the concept of equivalent freshwater head in successive horizontal simulations of seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta Aquifer. Egypt. J Hydrol 464-465:186–198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diab MS, Dahab K, El Fakharany M (1997) Impacts of the paleohydrological conditions on the groundwater quality in the northern part of Nile Delta. The geological society of Egypt, Cairo. J Geol 4112B:779–795Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Petalas CP, Diamantis IB (1999) Origin and distribution of saline groundwaters in the upper Miocene aquifer system, coastal Rhodope area, northeastern Greece. Hydrogeol J 7:305–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sherif MM (1999) The Nile delta aquifer in Egypt. In: Bear J et al (eds) Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: concepts, methods and practices. Theory and application of transport in porous media, vol 14. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 559–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Polemio M, Limoni PP, Mitolo D, Santaloia F (2002) Characterisation of the Ionian-Lucanian coastal aquifer and seawater intrusion hazard. In: Proceedings of the 17th salt water intrusion meeting, Delft, pp 422–434Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Petalas C, Lambrakis N (2006) Simulation of intense salinization phenomena in coastal aquifers-the case of the coastal aquifers of Thrace. J Hydrol 324:51–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Somay MA, Gemici U (2009) Assessment of the salinization process at the coastal area with hydrogeochemical tools and geographical information systems (GIS): Selçuk plain, Izmir, Turkey. Water Air Soil Pollut 201:55–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Salem ZE, Gaame OM, Hassan TM (2008) Using temperature logs and hydrochemistry as indicators for seawater intrusion and flow lines of groundwater in the Quaternary aquifer, Nile Delta, Egypt. In: Proceeding of the 5th international symposium on geophysics, Tanta, pp 25–38Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salem ZE, El-Horiny MM (2014) Hydrogeochemical evaluation of calcareous eolianite aquifer with saline soil in a semiarid area. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:8294–8314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sefelnasr A, Sherif MM (2014) Impacts of seawater rise on seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta aquifer, Egypt. Ground Water 52:264–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Salem ZE, Osman OM (2017) Use of major ions to evaluate the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater influenced by reclamation and seawater intrusion, West Nile Delta, Egypt. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:3675–3704.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8056-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Werner AD, Bakker M, Post VEA, Vandenbohede A, Lu C, Ataie-Ashtiani B, Simmons CT, Barry DA (2013) Seawater intrusion processes, investigation and management: recent advances and future challenges. Adv Water Resour 51:3–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Choudhury K, Saha DK, Chakraborty P (2001) Geophysical study for saline water intrusion in a coastal alluvial terrain. J Appl Geophys 46:189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maillet GM, Rizzo E, Revil A, Vella C (2005) High resolution electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in a transition zone environment: application for detailed internal architecture and infilling processes study of a Rhône River paleo-channel. Mar Geophys Res 26:317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gurunadha Rao VVS, Tamma Rao G, Surinaidu L, Rajesh R, Mahesh J (2011) Geophysical and geochemical approach for seawater intrusion assessment in the Godavari Delta Basin, India. Water Air Soil Pollut 217:503–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Steeples DW (2001) Engineering and environmental geophysics at the millennium. Geophysics 66:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lapenna V, Lorenzo P, Perrone A, Piscitelli S, Rizzo E, Sdao F (2005) 2D electrical resistivity imaging of some complex landslides in the Lucanian Apennine chain, southern Italy. Geophysics 70:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pantelis S, Kouli M, Vallianatos F, Vafidis A, Stavroulakis G (2007) Estimation of aquifer hydraulic parameters from surficial geophysical methods: a case study of Keritis Basin in Chania (Crete – Greece). J Hydrol 338:122–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chianese D, Lapenna V (2007) Magnetic probability tomography for environmental purposes: test measurements and field applications. J Geophys Eng 4:63–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Naudet V, Lazzari M, Perrone A, Loperte A, Piscitelli S, Lapenna V (2008) Integrated geophysical and geomorphological approach to investigate the snowmelt-triggered landslide of Bosco Piccolo village (Basilicata, southern Italy). Eng Geol 98:156–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Urish DW, Frohlich RK (1990) Surface electrical resistivity in coastal groundwater exploration. Geoexploration 26:267–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ebraheem AAM, Senosy MM, Dahab KA (1997) Geoelectrical and hydrogeochemical studies for delineating ground-water contamination due to salt-water intrusion in the northern part of the Nile Delta, Egypt. Ground Water 35:216–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kruse SE, Brudzinski MR, Geib TL (1998) Use of electrical and electromagnetic techniques to map seawater intrusion near the Cross-Florida Barge Canal. Environ Eng Geosci 4:331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nowroozi AA, Horrocks SB, Henderson P (1999) Saltwater intrusion into the freshwater aquifer in the eastern shore of Virginia: a reconnaissance electrical resistivity survey. J Appl Geophys 42:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Abdul Nassir SS, Loke MH, Lee CY, Nawawi MNM (2000) Salt-water intrusion mapping by geoelectrical imaging surveys. Geophys Prospect 48:647–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Balia R, Gavaudò E, Ardau F, Ghiglieri G (2003) Geophysical approach to the environmental study of a coastal plain. Geophysics 68:1446–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Choudhury K, Saha DK (2004) Integrated geophysical and chemical study of saline water intrusion. Ground Water 42:671–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Batayneh AT (2006) Use of electrical resistivity methods for detecting subsurface fresh and saline water and delineating their interfacial configuration: a case study of the eastern Dead Sea coastal aquifers, Jordan. Hydrogeol J 14:1277–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bauer P, Supper R, Zimmermann S, Kinzelbach W (2006) Geoelectrical imaging of groundwater salinization in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. J Appl Geophys 60:126–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Khalil MH (2006) Geoelectric resistivity sounding for delineating salt water intrusion in the Abu Zenima area, west Sinai. Egypt. J Geophys Eng 3:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sherif M, El Mahmoudi A, Garamoon H, Kacimov A (2006) Geoelectrical and hydrogeochemical studies for delineating seawater intrusion in the outlet of Wadi Ham, UAE. Environ Geol 49:536–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Koukadaki MA, Karatzas GP, Papadopoulou MP, Vafidis A (2007) Identification of the saline zone in a coastal aquifer using electrical tomography data and simulation. Water Resour Manag 21:1881–1898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cimino A, Cosentino C, Oieni A, Tranchina L (2008) A geophysical and geochemical approach for seawater intrusion assessment in the Acquedolci coastal aquifer (Northern Sicily). Environ Geol 55:1473–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fadili A, Najib S, Mehdi K, Riss J, Malaurent P, Makan A (2017) Geoelectrical and hydrochemical study for the assessment of seawater intrusion evolution in coastal aquifers of Oualidia, Morocco. J Appl Geophys 146:178–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Salem ZE (2009) Natural and human impacts on the groundwater under an Egyptian village, central Nile Delta: a case study of Mehallet Menouf. In: 13th international water technology conference (IWTC, 13), Hurghada, 12–15 Mar 2009, vol 3, pp 1397–1414Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Attwa M, Basokur A, Akca I (2014) Hydraulic conductivity estimation using direct current (DC) sounding data: a case study in East Nile Delta, Egypt. Hydrogeol J 22:1163–1178.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-014-1107-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gemail K, El-Shishtawy AM, El-Alfy M, Ghoneim MF, El-Bary MHA (2011) Assessment of aquifer vulnerability to industrial waste water using resistivity measurements. A case study, along El-Gharbyia main drain, Nile Delta, Egypt. J Appl Geophys 75:140–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kashef A (1983) Salt water intrusion in the Nile Delta. Groundwater 21:160–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mabrouk B, Arafa S, Gemail K (2015) Water management strategy in assessing the water scarcity in Northern Western region of Nile Delta, Egypt. Geophysical research abstracts, vol 17. EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna. EGU2015-15805, 2015Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    McGranahan G, Balk D, Anderson B (2007) The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones. Environ Urban 19:17–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mabrouk MB, Jonoski A, Solomatine D, Uhlenbrook S (2013) A review of seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta groundwater system – the basis for assessing impacts due to climate changes and water resources development. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss 10:10873–10911.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-10-10873-2013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Attwa M, Gemail KS, Eleraki M (2016) Use of salinity and resistivity measurements to study the coastal aquifer salinization in a semi-arid region: a case study in northeast Nile Delta. Egypt. Environ Earth Sci 75:784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mohamed AK (2016) Application of DC resistivity method for groundwater investigation, case study at West Nile Delta, Egypt. Arab J Geosci 9:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tarabees E, El-Qady G (2016) Sea water intrusion modeling in Rashid area of Nile Delta (Egypt) via the inversion of DC resistivity data. Am J Clim Chang 5:147–156.  https://doi.org/10.4236/ajcc.2016.52014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Salem ZE, Osman MO (2016) Shallow subsurface temperature in the environs of El-Nubaria canal, northwestern Nile Delta of Egypt: implications for monitoring groundwater flow system. Environ Earth Sci 75:1241.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-6046-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Salem ZE, Atwia MG, El-Horiny MM (2015) Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater in the reclaimed small basin of Abu Mina, Egypt. Hydrogeol J.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-015-1303-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fadlelmawla AA, Dawoud MA (2006) An approach for delineating drinking water wellhead protection areas at the Nile Delta, Egypt. J Environ Manag 79:140–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    El-Bayumy DA (2014) Sedimentological and hydrological studies on the area west of the Nile Delta, Egypt. MSc thesis, Tanta UniversityGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Salem ZE, El Bayumy DA (2016a) Hydrogeological, petrophysical and hydrogeochemical characteristics of the groundwater aquifers east of Wadi El-Natrun, Egypt. NRIAG J Astron Geophys 5:106–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Salem ZE, El Bayumy DA (2016b) Use of the subsurface thermal regime as a groundwater-flow tracer in the semi-arid western Nile Delta, Egypt. Hydrogeol J 24:1001–1014.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-016-1377-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Osman OM (2014) Hydrogeological and geoenviromental studies of El Behira Governorate, Egypt. PhD dissertation, Tanta UniversityGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    El Shazly EM, Abdel-Hady M A, El-Ghawab MA, El Kassas IA, Khawasil SM, El Shazly MM, Sanad S (1975) Geological interpretation of Landsat Satellite Images for west Nile Delta area, Egypt. Remote Sensing Research project. Academy of Scientific Research Technology, CairoGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    El Ghazawi MM (1982) Geological studies of the Quaternary-Neogene aquifers in the area northwest Nile Delta. MSc thesis, Al-Azhar UniversityGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mabrouk MA (1978) Electrical prospecting on the groundwater in the area west of Cairo-Alexandria desert road (between Wadi El- Natron and El-Nasr Canal). MSc thesis, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams UniversityGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Abdel Wahab S (1999) Hydrogeological and isotope assessment of groundwater in Wadi El-Natrum and Sadat city, Egypt. MSc thesis, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams UniversityGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Saad K (1962) Groundwater studies of Wadi El-Natrun and its vicinities. Desert Institute, Cairo, p 61Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Desert Research Institute (DRI) (1974) Report on the regional hydrogeological studies of the West El Nubaria area (300,000 Feddans reclamation project), internal report, Cairo, 125 pGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Abdel Baki AA (1983) Hydrogeological and hydrochemical studies on the area west of Rosette branch and south of El-Nasr Canal. PhD thesis, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams UniversityGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Milsom J (2003) Field geophysics, 3rd edn. Wiley, Chichester, p 247Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Palacky GJ (1987) Resistivity characteristics of geologic targets. In: Nabighian MN (ed) Electromagnetic methods in applied geophysics theory, vol 1. Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, Okla, pp 53–129Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bobachev AA, Modin IN, Chevnin VA (2001) IPI2win v. 2.0: user’s guide. Moscow State University, Geological Faculty, Department of Geophysics, Moscow, p 35Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rockwork (2004) Earth Science and GIS Software (Geosof), www.rockware.com. Suite 101 Golden, CO 80401 USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geology Department, Faculty of ScienceTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  2. 2.Geology Department, Faculty of ScienceDamanhour UniversityDamanhourEgypt

Personalised recommendations