Advertisement

Mountain Watersheds, Torrents, and Torrent Control in Slovakia

  • M. Jakubis
  • M. Jakubisová
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 70)

Abstract

The Slovak Republic with an area of 49,035.81 km2 is in most of its territory a mountain landscape and has watercourses with a total length of 61,147 km. From this length, approximately 24,000 km (39.25%) have the character of torrents. The chapter deals with the issues of mountain watersheds, torrent control, and torrents which are in Slovakia in the length of 19,408 km managed by forestry organizations. The chapter provides basic information about Slovakia’s mountain watersheds and torrents and about the methods to the determination of watercourse type (river, brook, and torrent) through technical standards or calculation. The chapter includes the history of torrent control and torrent flash floods in mountain watersheds of Slovakia. Also, it deals with lessons from the history of flash floods. The chapter analyzes the discharge capacity of natural torrent beds in various geomorphologic units of Slovakia. A part of this chapter deals with forests in mountain watersheds and their impact on runoff formation and water balance of individual forest altitudinal vegetation zones of Slovakia. In a separate part, an example of water balance in mountain watersheds of the highest mountain of Slovakia (the High Tatras) is explained. Finally, we present the calculation procedure to the determination of T-yearly discharges in forestry practice in Slovakia.

Keywords

Flash floods Forests Runoff Small catchments Watercourses 

References

  1. 1.
    Composite Authors (1984) 100 Jahre Wildbachverbauung (100 years of torrent control in Austria). Bundesministerium für Land und Forstwirtschaft, Wien, p 283. (In German)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Skatula L (1960) Hrazení bystřin a strží (Torrent and gully control). SZN, Praha, p 430. (in Czech)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Binder R (1969) Zahrádzanie bystrín a lavín (Torrent and avalanche control). Príroda, Bratislava, p 292. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Szolgay J, Hlavčová K, Parajka J, Čunderlík J (1997) Assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on river runoff in Slovakia. Ministry of Environment of the SR, Bratislava, Slovak-Hydrometeorological Institute, Bratislava, pp 11–108. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    STN 75 2102 Rivers and brooks regulations (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    STN 48 2506 Forestry amelioration – Torrent and gully control (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jakubis M, Janský L (2005) The history and importance of the oldest torrent control in the Slovak Republic. In: Coopey R, Fahlbusch H, Hatcho N, Jansky L (eds) A history of water issues. Lessons to learn. United Nations University, Tokyo, pp 178–186Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Skatula L (1973) Zkušenosti s použitím úprav bystřinných toků (Experience with use of torrent control). VSŽ, Brno, p 92. (In Czech)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Skatula L (1935) Zahradenie sbernej oblasti bystriny Jelenca V Starých Horách (Torrent control in the watershed Jelenec in Staré Hory). Zprávy veřejné služby technické 17:547–551. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Grešková A (2002) Relevantné faktory vzniku a podmienky formovania sa povodňových prietokov v povodí Krupinice v roku 1999 (Relevant factors of the formation and conditions of flood discharges in the Krupinica watershed in 1999). Geographia Slovaca 18:267–294. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rigo F (1999) Následky júlovej povodne na tokoch v správe OZ povodie Hrona v Banskobystrickom kraji. (Consequences of the July flood on the streams in the area of river Hron watershed in Banská Bystrica region). Vodohospodársky spravodajca XLII(10):12–14Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jakubis M (2002) Flood disasters in semimountainous areas – Lessons from failures in history of torrent control in the Slovak Republic. In: Fahlbusch H (ed) Food production under conditions of water scarcity, increasing population and environmental pressures. Transaction/Actes vol 1. History Seminar, ICID, New Delhi, pp 27–34Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jakubis M (2013) K problematike protipovodňovej ochrany na Slovensku a úlohách lesníkov v protipovodňovej ochrane krajiny (To the problems of flash floods in the SR and the role of foresters in the flood control of the landscape). In: Jakubis M, Podkonický L (eds) Current state and bases of flood protection in the SR. Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, pp 42–50. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jakubis M (2000) Odtokové charakteristiky bystrín Západných Tatier (Runoff characteristics of the torrents in the Western Tatras). Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, p 63. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jakubis M (2008) Výskum závislostí regionálnej hydraulickej geometrie na príklade vodných tokov CHKO BR Poľana (The research of relations of regional hydraulic geometry on the example of watercourses of the protected landscape area – biosphere reserve Poľana). Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, p 116. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jakubis M (2009) Interval opakovania prietoku plným prietokovým profilom v prirodzených korytách vodných tokov v malých povodiach (The recurrence interval of bankfull discharge in natural watercourse beds in small watersheds). Acta Facultatis Forestalis, Zvolen, pp 77–88. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jakubis M, Jakubisová M (2011) Frekvencia výskytu prietoku plným prietokovým profilom v prirodzených korytách bystrín Západných Tatier pod zdrojovými zónami (Frequency of bankfull discharge occurrence in natural torrent beds of West Tatras under the source zones). Acta Facultatis Forestalis Zvolen 54(3):121–134. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    López Cadenas De Llano D (1993) Torrent control and streambed stabilization. FAO, Rome, p 166Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Composite Authors (2010) Lesy Slovenska a voda (Forest of Slovakia and water). Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, p 129. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Composite Authors (2016) Správa o lesnom hospodárstve Slovenskej republiky za rok 2015 (Report on forestry in the Slovak Republic per year 2015). Bratislava: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic, National Forest Centre, Zvolen, p 76. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Majerčáková O, Škoda P (1998) Prívalové dažde na severovýchodnom Slovensku. (Torrential rains in the north–east Slovakia). Vodohospodársky spravodajca XLI(10):18–19Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Valtýni J (2002) Lesy a povodne (Forest and floods). Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, p 46. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Valtýni J (1995) Základy hydrológie a lesníckej hydrológia (Basics of hydrology and forestry hydrology). Technickal University in Zvolen, Zvolen, p 103. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Krešl J (1990) Lesnické meliorace (Forestry amelioration). Vysoká škola zemědělská, Brno, p 226. (In Czech)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Minďáš J, Čaboun V (2002) Influence of vegetation on catchment runoff. Final Report of Project VTP 27–64 E0203, LVÚ, Zvolen, p 26. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bíba M, Oceánska Z, Vícha Z, Jařabáč M (2006) Forest – hydrological research in small experimental catchments in the Beskydy Mts. J Hydrol Hydromech 54(2):113–122Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Minďáš J (2010) Vodná bilancia lesného ekosystému (Water balance of forest ecosystem). In: Minďáš J, Škvarenina J (eds) Lesy Slovenska a voda (Forest of Slovakia and water). Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, p 129. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Krešl J (1989) Lesotechnický systém protierózní ochrany a hrazení bystřin (Forestry-technical system of erosion control in torrent control). In: Novák L (ed) Natural environment and watercourses. Povodí Ohře, Chomutov, pp 52–59. (In Czech)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Valtýni J (1986) Vodohospodársky a vodoochranný význam lesa (Importance of the forest for water management and water protection). Príroda, Bratislava, p 68. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jakubisová M (2009) Starostlivosť o brehové porasty a jej význam v protipovodňovej ochrane krajiny (Tending about riparian stands and their importance in the flood control of the landscape). In: Watercourses (2009) Kostelec nad Černými lesy: Lesnická práce, sro, pp 143–147. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jakubisová M (2013) Brehové porasty a povodňové prietoky (Riparian stands and flood discharges). In: Jakubis M, Podkonický L (eds) Current state and bases of flood protection in the SR. Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, pp 69–76. (In Slovak)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bandyopadhyay J, Rodda JC, Kattelmann R, Kundewicz W, Kraemer D (1997) Highland waters – a resource of global significance. In: Messerli B, Ives JD (eds) Mountains of the world. A global priority. Parthenon Publishing Group, New York, pp 131–155Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Branch Technical Standard OTN ŽP 3112–1:03 (In Slovak)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forest Harvesting, Logistics and Ameliorations, Faculty of ForestryTechnical University in ZvolenZvolenSlovakia
  2. 2.The Arboretum Borová horaTechnical University in ZvolenZvolenSlovakia

Personalised recommendations