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Nutritional Status and Dietary Patterns in Adults with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

  • Anna Jeznach–Steinhagen
  • Katarzyna OkręglickaEmail author
  • Aneta Nitsch–Osuch
  • Aneta Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna
  • Małgorzata Barnaś
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with daytime sleepiness, obesity, and lifestyle and dietary changes. The potential role of diet in OSA has been largely unexplored. The aim of the study was to assess nutritional status and dietary patterns in OSA patients. The study was conducted in 137 adult patients (48 women and 89 men) aged 31–79 suffering from OSA. The following diagnostic procedures were undertaken: polysomnography, anthropometric measurements, and a dietary pattern questionnaire. We found that 128 (93.4%) patients were overweight or obese with the mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.2 ± 6.1 kg/m2 and weight of 98.0 ± 20.2 kg. The mean percentage of total body fat was 45.0 ± 5.5% in women and 32.5 ± 5.5% in men. Obesity was associated with the severity of OSA, expressed by apnea/hypopnea index. We further found that the waist-to-hip ratio in women, but the neck circumference or percentage of body fat in men, characterizes best the OSA patients. Referring to dietary habits, half of the patients consumed white bread on a daily basis, 35.8% of them had whole grain bread in the diet, and only 16.8% consumed fish at least two portions a week. A third of patients used butter as a spread for bread or a source of fat for cooking, 2.9% of them used soft margarine, and 20.4% used olive or canola oil. Fruits and vegetables were consumed by 60% and 38% of patients, respectively. Refined sugar and sweets were used by 31.4% of patients every day. We conclude that excessive body weight, which may portend the development of OSA, is characterized by different anthropometric variables in men and women. Further, improper dietary habits seem conducive to the gain in body weight and thus may be at play in the pathogenesis of OSA.

Keywords

Body fat Dietary patterns Nutritional status Obesity Obstructive sleep apnea 

Notes

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical University of Warsaw in Poland.

Informed Consent

Written informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Jeznach–Steinhagen
    • 1
  • Katarzyna Okręglicka
    • 2
    Email author
  • Aneta Nitsch–Osuch
    • 2
  • Aneta Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna
    • 1
  • Małgorzata Barnaś
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Clinical DieteticsMedical University of WarsawWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Department of Social Medicine and Public HealthMedical University of WarsawWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Department of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Diseases and AllergyMedical University of WarsawWarsawPoland

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